The effect of Self-Directed Learning on the relationship between Self-Leadership and Online Learning among university students in Turkey
More and more people across the world seek a university education. Therefore, universities offer full or partial distance undergraduate and postgraduate degrees to meet that demand. Distance education has become more widespread with advances in the Internet and computer technologies and online learning and teaching software (e.g., Learning Management Systems). The spread of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which broke out in early 2020, has also played a significant role in the increased popularity of distance education. Therefore, investigating and reporting upon university students’ self-leadership (SL) behaviors, self-directed learning (SDL) skills, and online learning (OL) attitudes in such learning environments is both timely and critical. This empirical study used a relational survey model to investigate SL, SDL, and OL among university students. The sample consisted of 835 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the “Self-Directed Learning Scale (SDLS),” “Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire (RSLQ),” and “Online Learning Attitude Scale (OLAS).” Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson coefficient, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). SL was moderately and positively correlated with SDL and OL. SDL was moderately and positively correlated with OL. SDL played a fully mediating role in the relationship between SL and OL. SL predicted OL in both the indirect and total effect model. This study addressed university students’ perceptions and tested a model to provide empirical evidence for the relationships and predictions of SL, SDL, and OL. Therefore, it is believed that the results will help advance the constructs of SDL, SL, and OL paradigms.
Received: 07 March 2020
Accepted: 17 November 2020
Akcaoglu, Mete, and Lee, Eunbae. “Using Facebook Groups to Support Social Presence in Online Learning.” Distance Education 39, no. 3 (2018): 334-352. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2018.1476842
Aldholay, Adnan H., Osama Isaac, Zaini Abdullah, and T. Ramayah. “The Role of Transformational Leadership as a Mediating Variable in DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model: The Context of Online Learning Usage in Yemen.” Telematics and Informatics 35, no. 5 (2018): 1421–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2018.03.012.
Anderson, Joe S., and Gregory E. Prussia. “The Self-Leadership Questionnaire: Preliminary Assessment of Construct Validity.” Journal of Leadership Studies 4, no. 2 (1997): 119–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/107179199700400212.
Ay, Ferda Alper, Abdullah Karakaya, and Kasım Yilmaz. “Relations between self-leadership and critical thinking skills.” Procedia-social and Behavioral sciences 207 (2015): 29-41.
Bahçelerli, Nesrin, Tulen Saner, Zehra Altinay, Ebba Ossiannilsson, and Fahriye Altinay. “The Impact of Online Learning Context in Fostering Open Leadership Skills.” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Supported Education, 2017. https://doi.org/10.5220/0006387107360741.
Baron, Reuben M., and David A. Kenny. “The Moderator–Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51, no. 6 (1986): 1173–82. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683.
Beqiri, Mirjeta S., Nancy M. Chase, and Atena Bishka. “Online Course Delivery: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Satisfaction.” Journal of Education for Business 85, no. 2 (2009): 95–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832320903258527.
Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar, Leon Yufeng Wu, and Chang Chun-Yen. “Development and Validation of the Perception of Students towards Online Learning (POSTOL).” Journal of Educational Technology & Society 19, no. 1 (2016): 350-359.
Broadbent, Jaclyn, and Water l. Poon. “Self-Regulated Learning Strategies & Academic Achievement in Online Higher Education Learning Environments: A Systematic Review.” The Internet and Higher Education 27 (2015): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.04.007.
Brockett, Ralph. “Self-directed learning and the hard-to-reach adult.” Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years 6, no 8 (1983): 16-18.
Chou, Pao-Nan. “Effect of Students’ Self-Directed Learning Abilities on Online Learning Outcomes: Two Exploratory Experiments in Electronic Engineering.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 2, no. 6 (2012): 172-179.
Clark, Ruth Colvin, and Richard E. Mayer. E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2016.
Cole, David A. “Utility of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Test Validation Research.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55, no. 4 (1987): 584–94. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.55.4.584.
Demircioğlu, Zeynep Işıl, Burak Öge, Emine Ezgi Fuçular, Tuğçe Çevik, Merve Denizci Nazlıgül, and Erol Özçelik. “Reliability, Validity and Turkish Adaptation of Self-Directed Learning Scale (SDLS).” International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education 5, no. 2, (2018): 235-47. https://doi.org/10.21449/ijate.401069.
Du, Jianxia, Xitao Fan, Jianzhong Xu, Chuang Wang, Li Sun, and Fangtong Liu. “Predictors for Students’ Self-Efficacy in Online Collaborative Groupwork.” Educational Technology Research and Development 67, no. 4 (2019): 767–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-018-9631-9.
Eckton, Darin R., and S. Rhett Palfreyman. “Self-Directed Learning as a Form of Self-Leadership: An Exploratory Study in a First-Year Experience Student Success Course.” The Journal of Student Leadership 1, no. 2 (2017): 15-29.
Ellis, Robert A., Paul Ginns, and Leanne Piggott. “E-Learning in Higher Education: Some Key Aspects and Their Relationship to Approaches to Study.” Higher Education Research & Development 28, no. 3 (2009): 303-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360902839909.
Eraqi, Mohammed I., Wesal Abou-Alam, Mayadah Belal and Toka Fahmi. “Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Toward E-Learning in Tourism: The Case of Egypt.” Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism 11, no 4 (2011): 325-348. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15313220.2011.624397
Eun-Joo, Kim, and Han-Suk, Lee. “Analyzing Correlation of Self-leadership and Intrinsic Motivation among Some Physiotherapy Students.” Journal of Korean Society of Physical Medicine 12, no 1 (2017): 113-120. doi: https://doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2017.12.1.113
Fidan, Mustafa. “Yenilenen Öz-Liderlik Ölçeği’ni Üniversite Öğrencileri Örnekleminde Türkçe’ye Uyarlama Çalişmasi.” Uluslararası Liderlik Eğitimi Dergisi-International Journal of Leadership Training 2, (2018): 1-16.
Field, Andy. Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2009.
Garnjost, Petra, and Leanna Lawter. “Undergraduates’ Satisfaction and Perceptions of Learning Outcomes across Teacher- and Learner-Focused Pedagogies.” The International Journal of Management Education 17, no. 2 (2019): 267–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2019.03.004.
Garrison, D. Randy “Self-Directed Learning: Toward a Comprehensive Model.” Adult Education Quarterly 48, no. 1 (1997): 18-33. https://doi.org/10.1177/074171369704800103.
Garrison, D. Randy. “Self-Directed Learning and Distance Education.” In Handbook of Distance Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003.
Geng, Shuang, Kris M. Y. Law, and Ben Niu. “Investigating Self-Directed Learning and Technology Readiness in Blending Learning Environment.” International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 16, no. 1 (2019):1-22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0147-0.
Gomez, Doris. “Leadership behavior and its impact on student success and retention in online graduate education.” Academy of Educational Leadership Journal 17, no.2 (2013): 13-37.
Holmbeck, Grayson N. “Toward Terminological, Conceptual, and Statistical Clarity in the Study of Mediators and Moderators: Examples from the Child-Clinical and Pediatric Psychology Literatures.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65, no. 4 (1997): 599-610. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.65.4.599.
Houghton, Jeffery D., and Christopher P. Neck. “The Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 17, no. 8 (2002): 672–91. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940210450484.
Houghton, Jeffery D., Andrew Carnes, and Christopher N. Ellison. “A Cross-Cultural Examination of Self-Leadership.” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 21, no. 4 (2014): 414–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813515753.
Houlden, Shandell, and George Veletsianos. “A Posthumanist Critique of Flexible Online Learning and Its ‘Anytime Anyplace’ Claims.” British Journal of Educational Technology 50, no. 3 (2019): 1005–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12779.
Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan), Jeremy R. Sullivan, and Norma S. Guerra. “A Closer Look at College Students: Self-Efficacy and Goal Orientation.” Journal of Advanced Academics 18, no. 3 (2007): 454–76. https://doi.org/10.4219/jaa-2007-500.
Hsu, Hui-Ching Kayla, Cong Vivi Wang, and Chantal Levesque-Bristol. “Reexamining the Impact of Self-Determination Theory on Learning Outcomes in the Online Learning Environment.” Education and Information Technologies 24, no. 3 (2019): 2159–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09863-w.
Hsu, Ting-Chia. “Learning English with Augmented Reality: Do Learning Styles Matter?” Computers & Education 106, (2017): 137–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.12.007.
Hsu, Yu-Chiung, and Ya-Ming Shiue. “The Effect of Self-Directed Learning Readiness on Achievement Comparing Face-To-Face and Two-Way Distance Learning Instruction.” International Journal of Instructional Media 32, no. 2 (2005): 143-156.
Hu, Li-Tze, and Peter M. Bentler. “Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives.” Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 6, no. 1 (1999): 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.
Ilgaz, Hale, and Yasemin Gülbahar. “A Snapshot of Online Learners: e-Readiness, e-Satisfaction and Expectations.” The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 16, no. 2 (2015): 171-187. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v16i2.2117.
Isaaca, Osama, Adnan Aldholay, Zaini Abdullah, and T. Ramayah. “Online learning usage within Yemeni higher education: The role of compatibility and task-technology fit as mediating variables in the IS success model.” Computers & Education 136 (2019): 113-129. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.02.012
James, Angela M. “Self-leadership and Self-Regulated Learning: An Investigation of Theoretical Relationships.” Journal of Business & Leadership: Research, Practice, and Teaching (2005-2012) 5, no. 1 (2009): 59-67.
Kaufmann, Renee, Deanna D. Sellnow, and Brandi N. Frisby. “The Development and Validation of the Online Learning Climate Scale (OLCS).” Communication Education 65, no. 3 (2016): 307–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2015.1101778.
Kember, David, Doris Leung, and Michael Prosser. “Has the Open Door Become a Revolving Door? The Impact on Attrition of Moving from Elite to Mass Higher Education.” Studies in Higher Education, (2019): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1629411.
Kim, Myoung Sook. “Influence of Metacognition and Emotional Intelligence on Self-leadership in Nursing Students.” Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration 25, no 2 (2019): 146-155. https://doi.org/10.11111/jkana.2019.25.2.146
Kline, Rex B. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York: Guilford Publications, 2015.
Knowles, Malcolm S. Self-Directed learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers. Chicago: Association Press, 1975.
Kozakowski, Whitney. “Moving the Classroom to the Computer Lab: Can Online Learning with in-Person Support Improve Outcomes in Community Colleges?” Economics of Education Review 70, (2019): 159–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2019.03.004.
Kraut, Rebecca, ed. Policy guidelines for mobile learning. UNESCO, 2013. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000219641
Lee, Cynthia, Alexander Seeshing Yeung, and Tiffany Ip. “University English Language Learners Readiness to Use Computer Technology for Self-Directed Learning.” System 67, (2017): 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.05.001.
Lee, Sun-Young, and Yun-Young Kim. “The Effects of Self-Efficacy and Self-Directed Learning Readiness to Self-Leadership of Nursing Student.” Journal of Digital Convergence 14, no. 3 (2016): 309–18. https://doi.org/10.14400/jdc.2016.14.3.309.
Long, Huey B. “Resources Related to Overcoming Resistance to Self-Direction in Learning.” New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 1994, no. 64 (1994): 13–21. https://doi.org/10.1002/ace.36719946404.
Lounsbury, John W., Jacob J. Levy, Soo-Hee Park, Lucy W. Gibson, and Ryan Smith. “An Investigation of the Construct Validity of the Personality Trait of Self-Directed Learning.” Learning and Individual Differences 19, no. 4 (2009): 411–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.03.001.
Manz, Charles C. “Self-leadership... the Heart of Empowerment.” The Journal for Quality and Participation 15, no. 4 (1992): 80-85.
Manz, Charles C. “Self-Leadership: Toward an Expanded Theory of Self-Influence Processes in Organizations.” The Academy of Management Review 11, no. 3 (1986): 585-600. https://doi.org/10.2307/258312.
Manz, Charles C. “Taking the Self-Leadership High Road: Smooth Surface or Potholes Ahead?” Academy of Management Perspectives 29, no. 1 (2015): 132- 51. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0060.
Marcoulides, George A., and Randall E. Schumacker (eds). New Developments and Techniques in Structural Equation Modeling. Londra: Lawrence Erbaum Associates Publishers, 2001.
Mayer, Richard E. “Thirty Years of Research on Online Learning.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 33, no. 2 (August 2018): 152–59. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3482.
Mertens, Donna M. Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology: Integrating Diversity With Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. California: Sage Publications, 2014.
Min, Qiusha, Zhifeng Wang, and Neng Liu. “Integrating a Cloud Learning Environment into English-Medium Instruction to Enhance Non-Native English-Speaking Students’ Learning.” Innovations in Education and Teaching International 56, no. 4 (2019): 493-504. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2018.1483838
Money, William H., and Benjamin P. Dean. “Incorporating Student Population Differences for Effective Online Education: A Content-Based Review and Integrative Model.” Computers & Education 138, (2019): 57–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.03.013.
Mullen, Patrick R., Dodie Limberg, Victor Tuazon, and Shannon M. Romagnolo. “Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Attributes of School Counselor Trainees.” Counselor Education and Supervision 58, no. 2 (2019): 112–26. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12135.
Napiersky, Uwe, and Stephen A. Woods. “From the Workplace to the Classroom: Examining the Impact of Self-Leadership Learning Strategies on Higher Educational Attainment and Success.” Innovations in Education and Teaching International 55, no. 4 (2018): 441–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2016.1263232.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). “Fast Facts-Distance learning.” Accessed October 20, 2020. https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/ display.asp?id=80
Neck, Christopher P., and Jeffery D. Houghton. “Two Decades of Self-Leadership Theory and Research.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 21, no. 4 (2006): 270–95. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610663097.
Norton, Andrew, Ittima Cherastidtham and Will Mackey, Mapping Australian higher education 2018. Grattan Institute, 2018.
Okabayashi, Haruo, and E. Paul Torrance. “Role of Style of Learning and Thinking and Self Directed Learning Readiness in the Achievement of Gifted Students.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 17, no. 2 (1984): 104–6. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221948401700210.
Online Learning and Distance Education Resources. “Canadian post-secondary enrolments: the role of online learning.” Accessed October 25, 2020. https://www.tonybates.ca/2020/02/21/canadian-post-secondary-enrolments-the-role-of-online-learning/
Open Universities Australia. “Explore. Choose. Enrol.” Accessed October 26, 2020 https://www.open.edu.au/
Pearson, Victoria, Kate Lister, Elaine Mcpherson, Anne-Marie Gallen, Gareth Davies, Chetz Colwell, Kate Bradshaw, Nicholas Braithwaite, and Trevor Collins. “Embedding and Sustaining Inclusive Practice to Support Disabled Students in Online and Blended Learning.” Journal of Interactive Media in Education 2019, no. 1 (2019): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.5334/jime.500.
Prussia, Gregory E., Joe S. Anderson, and Charles C. Manz. “Self-Leadership and Performance Outcomes: the Mediating Influence of Self-Efficacy.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 19, no. 5 (1998): 523–38.
Russo, Riccardo. Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: An Introduction. Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2004.
Schunk, Dale H., and Barry J. Zimmerman, (eds.) Self-Regulated Learning: From Teaching to Self-Reflective Practice. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
Seo, Kyung-Hwa. “The Effects of Self-Leadership on Career Decision-Making Self- Efficacy and Career Preparation Behavior - Focused on Culinary Major Students” Culinary Science & Hospitality Research 23, no. 2 (2017): 146–58. https://doi.org/10.20878/cshr.2017.23.2.015.
Singh, Kultar. Quantitative Social Research Methods. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2007.
Stockdale, Susan L., and Ralph G. Brockett. “Development of the PRO-SDLS: A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model.” Adult Education Quarterly 61, no. 2 (2011): 161–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741713610380447.
Suh, Han Na, Kenneth T. Wang, and Brooke J. Arterberry. “Development and Initial Validation of the Self-Directed Learning Inventory with Korean College Students.” Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 33, no. 7 (2015): 687–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282914557728.
Tallent-Runnels, Mary K., Julie A. Thomas, William Y. Lan, and Sandi Cooper, Terence C. Ahern, Shana M. Shaw and Xiaoming Liu. “Teaching Courses Online: A Review of the Research,” Review of Educational Research 76, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 93-135.
Techjury. “27 Astonishing E-learning Statistics for 2020.” Accessed October 27, 2020. https://techjury.net/blog/elearning-statistics/#gref
Tekkol, İlkay Aşkin, and Melek Demirel. “An investigation of self-directed learning skills of undergraduate students.” Frontiers in Psychology 9 (2018): 2324. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02324
The Open University. “The world’s leading distance-learning provider.” Accessed October 25, 2020. http://www.openuniversity.edu/
The Turkish Council of Higher Education (CoHE). “Higher Education Knowledge Management System – Distance Education Statistics.” Accessed October 20, 2020. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/
Tsai, Chia-Wen. “The Effect of Online Co-Regulated Learning in the Implementation of Team-Based Learning on Improving Students’ Involvement.” Higher Education Research & Development 34, no. 6 (2015): 1270–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729 4360.2015.1024631.
Usta, İlker, Ömer Uysal, & Muhammet Recep Okur. “Online learning attitude scale: Development, validity and reliability.” Journal of International Social Research 9, no. 43, (2016):2215-22.
Was, Christopher A., R. Benjamin Hollis, and John Dunlosky. “Do Students Understand the Detrimental Effects of Mind Wandering during Online Learning?” Computers & Education 135, (2019): 113–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.02.020.
Wilcox, Susan. “Fostering Self-Directed Learning in the University Setting.” Studies in Higher Education 21, no. 2 (1996): 165–76. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079612331381338.
Wong, Anne K. “Culture in Medical Education: Comparing a Thai and a Canadian Residency Programme.” Medical Education 45, no. 12 (2011): 1209–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04059.x.
Xie, Kui, Lauren C. Hensley, Victor Law, and Zhiru Sun. “Self-Regulation as a Function of Perceived Leadership and Cohesion in Small Group Online Collaborative Learning.” British Journal of Educational Technology 50, no. 1 (2019): 456–68. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12594.
Zhao, Xinshu, John G. Lynch, and Qimei Chen. “Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and Truths about Mediation Analysis.” Journal of Consumer Research 37, no. 2 (2010): 197–206. https://doi.org/10.1086/651257.
Authors are required to sign and submit a copyright transfer agreement after acceptance but before publication of their manuscript. To that effect, they receive, from the Managing Editor of Tuning Journal for Higher Education, a standard copyright assignment form designed along the following lines:
The author who signs the copyright transfer agreement must be the sole creator of the work or legally acting on behalf of and with the full agreement of all the contributing authors.
2. Copyright and Code of conduct:
a) Authors warrant that their work is original; has not been previously copyrighted or published in any form; is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; its submission and publication do not violate TJHE Ethical Guidelines for Publication and any codes (of conduct), privacy and confidentiality agreements, laws or any rights of any third party; and no publication payment by the Publisher (University of Deusto) is required.
b) Authors are solely liable for the consequences that may arise from third parties’ complaints about the submitted manuscript and its publication in Tuning Journal for Higher Education (TJHE).
c) Authors grant to the Publisher the worldwide, sub-licensable, and royalty-free right to exploit the work in all forms and media of expression, now known or developed in the future, for educational and scholarly purposes.
d) Authors retain the right to archive, present, display, distribute, develop, and republish their work (publisher's version) to progress their scientific career provided the original publication source (Tuning Journal) is acknowledged properly and in a way that does not suggest the Publisher endorses them or their use of the wortk.
e) Authors warrant that no permissions or licences of any kind will be granted that might infringe the rights granted to the Publisher.
Tuning Journal for Higher Education is an Open Access publication. Its content is free for full and immediate access, reading, search, download, distribution and reuse in any medium or format only for non-commercial purposes and in compliance with any applicable copyright legislation, without prior permission from the Publisher or the author(s). In any case, proper acknowledgement of the original publication source must be made and any changes to the original work must be indicated clearly and in a manner that does not suggest the author’s and or Publisher’s endorsement whatsoever. Any other use of its content in any medium or format, now known or developed in the future, requires prior written permission of the copyright holder.