Tuning Journal for Higher Education https://tuningjournal.org/ <p>DOI: <a href="http://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe</a></p> <p>The <a href="http://tuningacademy.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International&nbsp;Tuning Academy</a>&nbsp;(Tuning Academy, in short) as part of its mission to serve as an international meeting point for innovation and research in Higher Education has established the <em>Tuning Journal for Higher Education (TJHE)</em><span class="journal_data_title"><span class="journal_data_title"> (ISSN 2340-8170; e-ISSN 2386-3137).</span></span>&nbsp;The Journal is an Open Access publication that facilitates the individual and collaborative efforts of hundreds of international researchers who are working to develop innovative and sustainable higher education around the world. The Journal concentrates on the development of degree programmes and the challenges of their recognition, relevance and quality; as well as on teaching, learning and assessment strategies based on a student-centred approach.&nbsp;<br><br><em>Tuning Journal for Higher Education</em> is published online using the Open Journal Systems (OJS) software that integrates the Open Archive Initiative (OAI) protocol for greater dissemination and transmission of its contents&nbsp;on the internet (<a href="/oai" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.tuningjournal.org/oai</a>).<br><br><em>Tuning Journal for Higher Education</em>&nbsp;is included in:&nbsp;<strong><a href="http://mjl.clarivate.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=EX&amp;ISSN=*2340-8170" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI (WoS)</a></strong><strong>, <a href="https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/21100898309" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>, <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/action/aboutThisDatabase?show=publicationsCovered&amp;pubCode=era#letter-T" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERA</a>, <a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100898309&amp;tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scimago Ranking</a>, <a href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=source%3A%22Tuning+Journal+for+Higher+Education%22" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ERIC</a>, <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2386-3137" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, </strong><a href="https://scholar.google.com/scholar?as_vis=1&amp;q=source:%22Tuning+Journal+for+Higher+Education%22&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=1,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Google Scholar</strong></a>, <strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://academic.microsoft.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Microsoft Academic</a>, </strong><strong><a href="https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/revista?codigo=21329" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dialnet</a>,&nbsp;</strong><strong><a href="https://www.accesoabierto.net/dulcinea/ficha3290" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dulcinea</a>, <a href="http://miar.ub.edu/issn/2340-8170" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MIAR</a>,</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>and <a href="https://www.worldcat.org/title/tuning-journal-for-higher-education/oclc/1048176352&amp;referer=brief_results" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>WorldCat</strong></a>.<br><br></p> en-US <p>Authors are required to sign and submit a copyright transfer agreement after acceptance but before publication of their manuscript. To that effect, they receive, from the Managing Editor of Tuning Journal for Higher Education, a standard copyright assignment form designed along the following lines:</p> <p><strong>1. Authorship:</strong></p> <p>The author who signs the copyright transfer agreement must be the sole creator of the work or legally acting on behalf of and with the full agreement of all the contributing authors.</p> <p><strong>2. Copyright and Code of conduct:</strong></p> <p>a) Authors warrant that their work is original; has not been previously copyrighted or published in any form; is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; its submission and publication do not violate <a href="https://tuningjournal.org/about/ethicalguidelines" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TJHE Ethical Guidelines for Publication</a><strong>&nbsp;</strong>and any codes (of conduct), privacy and confidentiality agreements, laws or any rights of any third party; and no publication payment by the Publisher (<a href="http://www.deusto.es/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Deusto</a>) is required.</p> <p>b) Authors are solely liable for the consequences that may arise from third parties’ complaints about the submitted manuscript and its publication in Tuning Journal for Higher Education (TJHE).</p> <p>c) Authors grant to the Publisher the worldwide, sub-licensable, and royalty-free right to exploit the work in all forms and media of expression, now known or developed in the future, for educational and scholarly purposes.</p> <p>d) Authors retain the right to archive, present, display, distribute, develop, and republish their work (publisher's version)&nbsp;to progress their scientific career provided the original publication source (Tuning Journal) is acknowledged properly and in a way that does not suggest the Publisher endorses them or their use of the wortk.</p> <p>e) Authors warrant that no permissions or licences of any kind will be granted that might infringe the rights granted to the Publisher.</p> <p><strong>3. Users:</strong></p> <p>Tuning Journal for Higher Education is an Open Access publication.&nbsp;Its content is free for full and immediate access, reading, search, download, distribution and reuse&nbsp;in any medium or format only for non-commercial purposes and in compliance with any applicable copyright legislation, without prior permission from the Publisher or the author(s). In any case, proper acknowledgement of the original publication source must be made and any changes to the original work must be indicated clearly and in a manner that does not suggest the author’s and or Publisher’s endorsement whatsoever. Any other use of its content in any medium or format, now known or developed in the future, requires prior written permission of the copyright holder.</p> mary.gobbi@deusto.es (Mary Gobbi (PhD, MA Ed, Dip N, Dip NEd, RN)) ladislas.bizimana@deusto.es (Ladislas Bizimana, PhD) Tue, 29 Nov 2022 18:48:20 +0100 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2598 Mary Gobbi Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2598 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Introduction https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2599 <p>The papers in this Edition of the Journal comprise six ‘general papers’ and six in the COVID-19 section. Together, the papers clearly illustrate our theme Perspectives, stakeholders, and competences. While the papers comprising the general part of this Edition represent a diverse range of countries (Brazil, Iran, Spain, Turkey), there are some common themes. One cluster of papers is concerned with student outcomes or the professional competence of teacher trainees. The other cluster is interested in aspects of university strategy, whether financial or related to the university mission. The papers challenge us to consider the benefits of stakeholder engagement and multiple perspectives on policies, strategies, student or professional outcomes with their respective definitions, and specific educational interventions. Consequently, the methodologies and methods are appropriately diverse, involving bibliometric analysis, qualitative analysis (grounded theory, content, and textual analysis) the use of digital tools and statistics. From a theoretical lens, we encounter concepts such as parallax, historical and contemporary worldviews on education and the various philosophies on the nature of the university. Within a socio-political framework, we are introduced to the nuances of national government policies and their country-based impact that is shaped by local cultural traditions in education and attitude. Despite the range of topic, context and methods, each paper demonstrates a commitment to improving educational practice, research and student or staff experience.</p> Mary Gobbi Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2599 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 A bibliometric review of research on student outcomes in higher education 1960-2020 https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2189 <p>This study conducted a bibliometric analysis of studies on student outcomes in higher education from 1960 to 2020, providing a bibliometric content analysis of articles based on 52 Scopus-indexed higher education journals. Bibliometric analysis methodology was used, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses were employed to identify and select the 2,375 articles included in the sample. The trajectory of publications over time was also analyzed, and often-cited journals, authors, articles, and co-citations were identified. The topical foci of research on student outcomes were revealed, co-occurrence analysis was performed, and keyword co-occurrence maps are presented. Limitations, interpretation, implications, and recommendations were also made on the basis of the findings.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 12 September 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 18 August 2022</p> Ahmet Aypay, Hasan Yücel Ertem Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2189 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Competences in parallax in higher education from multiple standpoints in a Brazilian undergraduate program in International Business https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2181 <p>This article, a summary of a broader doctoral research study by the author, has different research participants, namely: graduates, their employers, professors, the College Dean and the Program Chair. The goal is to identify how these subjects comprehend the teaching and learning processes of professional competences, in the context of a Brazilian higher education program in International Business. For the theoretical reference, we discuss the concept of competence with different theoretical foundations. We present educational tools that promote teaching and learning competences, in addition to addressing competences for the 21st century. Using Textual Discourse Analysis, we deconstruct and categorize the transcribed discussions by the participants. We arrive at units of meaning, which are related to cognition, behavior, management, pedagogy, and technology, among others. Graduates understand competences are developed through work experience. Professors incorporate life and professional problems into their pedagogical practice, in line with the Dean and Program Chair, who claim the use of market values to structure the program curriculum. As for the employers, they conceive of college as background for the development of professional competences, which in their opinion, occurs via work experience. The process of analyzing and connecting the units of meaning led to the development of two emerging categories: culture and technology. They are in constant action and reaction, moving the dimensions necessary for competent action, under the aegis of the technological paradigm.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 25 August 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 9 August 2022</p> Marcelo Almeida de Camargo Pereira, Vera Lucia Felicetti Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2181 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 ICT and 360º evaluation: Improving professional skills in higher education in Spain https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2361 <p>The current dynamics of knowledge and innovation generation are faced with, sometimes, incompatible social and cultural trends. Something to which the University is not oblivious. Based on contemporary studies and our own experience, one of the clearest tensions has to do with the ability to judging based on reasons and not emotions. To help with this, in the educational context, the 360-degree evaluation can be a useful instrument in terms of the strengthening of their objective judgment. It is a technique that was conceived to exercise objective evaluation, in several and concurrent ways, which also allows to know their degree of objectivity. To demonstrate its potential, a sample of 56 students was used, taking the teacher’s grading as a reference. The task involved self, peer and inter-group assessment. The methodology was mixed, with support in descriptive statistics for quantitative grades and natural language processing for comments and clarifications. It was possible to detect differences in behavior depending on the type of analysis (self-assessment, peers, and groups), as well as determining which students were most qualified to assess objectively. Another issue was the general reluctance to explain numerical grades through notes. Here we consider several factors to explore, among which we highlight: the digital tool used and the time available; the phase of the academic course and the characteristics of the task; and subjective bias, especially in cases of low score. About the experience, it has also been possible to detect some difficulties derived from the application of a methodology, as complex and demanding as the one used, which generated more than 3000 evaluations. In any case, and in view of the data obtained, we consider that the results corroborate the practical utility of this approach and invite to explore additional aspects within this area.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 24 February 2022<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 12 September 2022</p> Daniel David Martínez-Romera, Sara Cortés-Dumont Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2361 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Views of pre-service teachers on the research-based teacher education approach https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2199 <p>In this study, the aim was to complete an investigation based on the views of pre-service teachers taking a scientific research methods course grounded on the critical features of the research-based teacher education approach. Within this scope, answers to the questions of “what are the views of pre-service teachers about (a) the outcomes provided by the research methods course, (b) the reasons for teachers to have research competencies, and (c) the professional function of scientific studies?” were sought. This research was designed with the basic qualitative research pattern. The researcher developed an interview form comprising open-ended questions to specify the views of pre-service teachers, which were the research target. To create the study group for the research, criterion sampling was chosen from the targeted sampling methods. The study was completed with 110 pre-service teachers attending the educational faculty of a state university in Turkey. A detailed analysis process was completed in four stages for the research data. Analyses were performed on statements reporting a total of 684 views. Pre-service teachers showed development in 25 subcategories classified into research competence, professional competence, and personal growth. Teachers’ need for research competency was justified based on the needs of contemporary teachers, the requirements due to the nature of the class, and ensuring the optimal conditions for effective teaching. Pre-service teachers’ views on the professional function of scientific studies were examined under five categories. These are reliable knowledge, real context, ideal practice, beyond experience, and distance from being guides. The research findings can be interpreted as the fact that teacher education practices which take the principles of the research-based teacher education approach into account have the potential to achieve the teacher qualifications targeted by this approach. Considering the potential of these qualifications to fulfill the complex and high-level expectations demanded from the teacher, it is recommended that studies be conducted on how the principles of research-based teacher education can be integrated into existing teacher education programs.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 17 September 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 20 September 2022</p> Emel Bayrak Özmutlu Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2199 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Beyond performance-based budgeting policy in Iran’s public universities: Causes, outcomes, and strategies https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2381 <p>The main aim of the present study was to analyze the causes, outcomes, and strategies of performance-based budgeting in the Iranian higher education system. To this end, a qualitative approach based on the grounded theory was used. In order to collect reliable data, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with two groups of experts who were selected by purposive sampling method based on the selection of desirable cases. After qualitative content analysis of the collected information via encoding, the detailed report preparation method and comparison with expert opinions were taken into account to validate the findings. At a significance level of 0.0001, the kappa measure of agreement was 0.786. The results showed that finding a suitable mechanism to ensure accountability and transparency in universities was the main focus of performance-based budgeting approach, and its implementation was affected by various factors at the macro level (government) and micro level (university). Positive outcomes of this budgeting model include improved accountability and transparency, project- oriented nature of the model, and improved efficiency and effectiveness. Besides, threat to the nature and independence of the university was possibly a negative consequence of this plan. To use the benefits simultaneously and avoid the negative consequences, various strategies were proposed, including the expansion of the authority, independence, and freedom of the university and the involvement of the university’s senior managers.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 10 March 2022<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 15 August 2022</p> Zargham Faramarzi Nia, Hamid Farhadi Rad, Yadollah Mehralizadeh, Rahmatullah Gholipour Soteh Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2381 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 An investigation of mission differentiation and specialization in Turkish universities in the context of strategic objectives https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2231 <p>This study examines and compares the strategic objectives of the universities included in the “mission differentiation and specialization on the basis of regional development” project carried out in the Turkish higher education system and well-established universities in Turkiye. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine how the goal of “mission differentiation and specialization on the basis of regional development” is tried to be realized in the higher education system and whether this goal really brings a difference to the activities of universities. The study was conducted through document review. The universities included in the study were determined by criterion sampling and two different study groups were formed for comparison. The first study group consisted of the universities involved in the mission differentiation project. The second study group consisted of the well-established universities located in various geographical regions of Turkiye. Data were analyzed through the content analysis. The strategic objectives of the universities were examined under the themes of increasing quality in education, increasing the quantity and quality of scientific research, improvement of communication and interaction with stakeholders, strengthening of corporate identity/structure/ensuring institutionalization and internationalization. The strategic objectives of the universities with mission differentiation are also analyzed in terms of leading local and regional development. The results of the research show that universities subject to mission differentiation and well-established universities have different qualifications only in terms of “leading local and regional development” and “strengthening community service studies.” However, there are also points where goals and performance indicators depending on these strategic objectives are resembled. The similarities in the strategic objectives of the universities show that the missions of the universities with mission differentiation and specialization should first be clarified based on a general framework provided by the Council of Higher Education. In line with the guiding framework, universities should establish their unique strategic objectives in the strategic planning process in order to contribute to regional development.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 20 October2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 7 October 2022</p> Nazife Karadağ, Betül Balkar Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2231 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 COVID-19 Special Section: Introduction. Targeted reflection, mutual understanding, and collaborative working. Building blocks for post‑pandemic models in higher education https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2600 <p>This introduction to the COVID-19 Special Section highlights the importance for targeted reflection on pandemic experiences, mutual understanding of perspectives and best practice sharing by and across stakeholder groups. Higher education, similar to other global sectors, has been profoundly shaken by the realities brought about since March 2020, and different stakeholders have felt the impact and consequences of the pandemic on a daily basis. Reports of challenges go a long way towards enabling understanding; however, unless these are combined with demonstrations of responses in context and analyses of their effectiveness, they remain at the level of awareness and cannot move towards action. Sharing the lessons learned, alerting to specificities and gaining perspectives have never been more timely, as higher education shapes future models for enhanced stakeholder experiences within increased quality parameters. Notwithstanding the disruptive effect on societies, COVID-19 must also be recognised as an accelerator for higher education, impacting digitalisation, accessibility and creating opportunities for new approaches to educational delivery and collaboration. The papers in this Special Section cover a variety of contexts, moving swiftly from Spain to Poland to the United States of America, India and Iran to return to Europe, i.e. Slovenia. Authors tackle specific challenges experienced by stakeholders, be they students, teaching and administrative staff, researchers or policy makers, and discuss lessons learned, highlight perceived benefits and recommend how these may be translated into policy and practice.</p> Anca Greere Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2600 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Researchers’ perceptions of COVID-19 impact on Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)-based practices and society’s view of science in the first months of the pandemic https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2324 <p>Over the last decade, national and international agencies have repeatedly called for research practices aligned with the Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), with varied effects on different disciplines and countries. The COVID-19 pandemic made this need even more critical. This study aimed to explore whether and how, from researchers’ point of view, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to changes in RRI-based research practices in the different disciplines and, more generally, society’s perception of science. 1499 researchers in the three Catalan-speaking regions of Spain responded to an online questionnaire in the first months of the pandemic. Results showed that while only half perceived an impact on RRI-based practices, this proportion was higher for Health Sciences and Social Sciences researchers in all the dimensions. Most researchers perceived a positive impact on societal actors’ views of science, although researchers in the Humanities were more sceptical than those in other disciplines. The analysis of open-ended questions revealed researchers from all disciplines were also concerned about fake news and claimed that researchers’ working conditions and research funding across all disciplines needed to be improved for future research to be capable of coping with current and future challenges.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 31 December 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 29 September 2022</p> Anna Sala-Bubaré, Mariona Corcelles, Núria Suñé-Soler, Montserrat Castelló Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2324 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic in the opinions of students in Poland https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2172 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has completely changed the social life as we have known so far. Lockdown-type control measures resulted in numerous limitations in the operation of public and non-public institutions as well as limitations in social, family and cultural life. The measures taken due to COVID-19 have had an immediate effect on higher education in Poland. The aim of the study was to find out what experiences were gained by students participating in distance education in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic. The long-term study was conducted in two stages. The study included 290 participants who were studying in various types of universities in Poland. As a result of the research it was found that from the perspective of students, the biggest advantage of online education were logistical and organisational issues. The greatest limitations of online education were: absence of personal interaction with teachers and other students, difficulty in organising online classes based on students’ activity and learning-by-doing, lack of standardisation of platforms used for online education at the university, too much workload for students requiring independent learning, and risk of health problems as a consequence of too long work at the computer. In the second semester of distance education during the pandemic, there was an increase in student satisfaction with online education, mainly due to the more frequent conducting of synchronously classes The crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic situation initiated the educational revolution in Poland. It appears that online education will remain an integral part of Polish higher education system, but it will not replace stationary education after the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 2 August 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 29 September 2022</p> Emilia Mazurek Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2172 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Preparing for the unexpected in a COVID-19 world: The teaching dilemmas of a mid-semester faculty change https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2296 <p>Despite the perceived rarity of mid-semester faculty changes, there is a shortage of literature to guide administrators and faculty on best practices for handing the dilemmas associated with mid-semester faculty changes. This is particularly concerning given the uncertainty of situations like the COVID-19 global pandemic and recent research that finds that future extreme epidemics are likely to happen. This paper seeks to answer two questions (1) What can faculty and administrators do to prepare students who are experiencing a mid-semester faculty change, and (2) What procedures and processes are in place to assist the incoming faculty? Data were collected through a survey of students who had underwent a mid-semester faculty change and interviews with administrators who deal with personnel issues like this one. The data suggest faculty should first meet with students to assess their progress before jumping into an established lesson plan (the opposite of how faculty normally prepare to teach a class). Clear communication about expectations, organization of the course materials, and instructor flexibility was identified as keys to student success during a teaching disruption. These findings align with decades of research on teaching and learning. Administrators should create contingency plans that go beyond the personnel transaction and that help faculty quickly prepare for a transition that is student focused. More research is needed to identify the best administrative processes and procedures to assist faculty in a smooth transition when taking over a course mid-semester.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 14 September 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 29 September 2022</p> Deborah M. Gray, Jeremy T. Bond, Jessica M. Wicks, Nancy Hicks Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2296 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Achievement emotions of university students in on-campus and online education during the COVID-19 pandemic https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2346 <p>Feelings and emotions play a prominent role in the motivation and academic performance of students. Considering this importance, this study aimed to compare the achievement emotions of students in two educational environments, traditional face-to-face classes and online classes, grown after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this goal, 92 university students who had the experience of the two modes of education evaluated their emotions in these contexts. The findings indicated that university students had better class-related and learning-related feelings (enjoyment, hope, and pride) in traditional face-to-face education. These students also reported feeling angrier in online classes. Differences in other emotions, such as anxiety, hopelessness, boredom, and shame, were not significant. Test-related emotions of students were rather similar in these two educational contexts. Although traditional face-to-face education produced more positive emotions in students, 29.7% of the students preferred to continue their studies in online mode. Blended education can help students make optimum use of available resources. The findings can be of use to educational policymakers, curriculum planners, teachers, and students.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 31 January 2022<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 19 October 2022</p> Esmaeil Ghaderi, Ali Khoshnood, Neda Fekri Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2346 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Teaching-learning process through virtual mode during the pandemic time: Systematic literature review and gap analysis https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2252 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;PURPOSE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) was closed temporarily. During this historical lockdown, the face-to-face mode classroom was temporarily got replaced by a virtual classroom. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of nationwide lockdown on the benefits of the virtual classroom for the teaching-learning process for teachers and students due to change in the teaching-learning process in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;DESIGN: A total of 893 responses have been used for this study. We have collected data through a structured questionnaire on a Likert scale from 305 teachers and 588 students of Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) from all India levels. Descriptive and frequency statistics, t-test was used in SPSS software to analyze the data collected through the primary source. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;FINDINGS: The mean difference between expected benefits from the virtual classroom and actual benefits from the classroom is positive for students as well as faculty members. That indicates the overall mean of expected benefits is higher than the overall mean of actual benefits, and that difference value is 0.250055, with a Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.036 which is less than 0.05 for teachers and 0.3872827, with a Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05 for students. That indicates the significant difference between means of actual benefits and expected. The mean value of the expected benefit is higher than the mean value of actual benefits for 11 pairs and 08 pairs in the case of teachers and students respectively. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;DISCUSSION: Technical barriers are the reasons for not being able to attend the expected benefits from virtual classrooms in full capacity by students as well as by faculty members. Poor digital skills of teachers and students, lack of electricity facilities, less availability and accessibility of internet, connection issues, inadequate facilities, training, funding, and unacceptability of technology, etc. were the barriers to online education at the time of closure of colleges due to COVID-19 pandemic Onyema et al. (2020). Students can also have a casual attitude, less attendance, feeling of isolation and less interaction can lead to mental distress, spending more time in front of a computer could be hazardous for health too Surkhali and Garbuja (2020). Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) faculty members, as well as students, were not able to perceive actual benefits in full in comparison to expected benefits due to the presence of challenges in the virtual classroom as moderators. The higher education authorities, colleges/institutes/universities need to fix the above issues to enhance the quality of the teaching-learning process. The higher education authorities, institutes/colleges/universities must work together to resolve the issues and challenges of virtual classrooms to improve their effectiveness of the virtual classroom. Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) may provide technical support, and training to the faculty members as well as students for a better experience in the virtual classroom. Students who are lacking technical infrastructures such as computers/laptops and internet connectivity may be provided by Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) with financial and technical support to these students.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 18 November 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 25 October 2022</p> Ajay Kumar Singh, Mukesh Kumar Meena Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2252 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Teaching practicum for primary teacher education students during the COVID-19 pandemic https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2278 <p>The paper presents results of the research on pre-service student teachers’ assessment of the usefulness of their distance teaching practicum during COVID-19 for their professional development. The sample included 238 student teachers in the 3rd and 4th years of the bachelor’s degree programme as well as those in the master’s degree programme at the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana. The students answered the online questionnaire after completing their teaching practicum in spring 2020. The results show that the majority of the students spent more than half of their time during the teaching practicum preparing various teaching materials for the pupils. About a fifth of the students provided individual help to pupils, while only a small share of them conducted their lessons via videoconferencing. The 3rd year students rated the usefulness of preparing teaching materials and the overall usefulness of the distance teaching practicum statistically significantly lower than their senior colleagues. Whether the teaching practicum is implemented in an online environment or “live”, it is important to insist that student teachers assist their pupils in all phases of the teaching process and adapt it to their individual characteristics and needs to the greatest extent possible.</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: 3 December 2021<br><strong>Accepted</strong>: 7 November 2022</p> Irena Hergan, Mojca Pečar Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2278 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Editors’ Acknowledgments https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2615 Mary Gobbi Copyright (c) 2022 University of Deusto https://tuningjournal.org/article/view/2615 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0100