Teaching-learning process through virtual mode during the pandemic time: Systematic literature review and gap analysis

  • Ajay Kumar Singh University of Delhi, India
  • Mukesh Kumar Meena University of Delhi, India
Keywords: virtual classroom, COVID-19, pandemic, higher education, teachinglearning process, teachers, students


    PURPOSE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) was closed temporarily. During this historical lockdown, the face-to-face mode classroom was temporarily got replaced by a virtual classroom. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of nationwide lockdown on the benefits of the virtual classroom for the teaching-learning process for teachers and students due to change in the teaching-learning process in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    DESIGN: A total of 893 responses have been used for this study. We have collected data through a structured questionnaire on a Likert scale from 305 teachers and 588 students of Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) from all India levels. Descriptive and frequency statistics, t-test was used in SPSS software to analyze the data collected through the primary source.
    FINDINGS: The mean difference between expected benefits from the virtual classroom and actual benefits from the classroom is positive for students as well as faculty members. That indicates the overall mean of expected benefits is higher than the overall mean of actual benefits, and that difference value is 0.250055, with a Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.036 which is less than 0.05 for teachers and 0.3872827, with a Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05 for students. That indicates the significant difference between means of actual benefits and expected. The mean value of the expected benefit is higher than the mean value of actual benefits for 11 pairs and 08 pairs in the case of teachers and students respectively.
    DISCUSSION: Technical barriers are the reasons for not being able to attend the expected benefits from virtual classrooms in full capacity by students as well as by faculty members. Poor digital skills of teachers and students, lack of electricity facilities, less availability and accessibility of internet, connection issues, inadequate facilities, training, funding, and unacceptability of technology, etc. were the barriers to online education at the time of closure of colleges due to COVID-19 pandemic Onyema et al. (2020). Students can also have a casual attitude, less attendance, feeling of isolation and less interaction can lead to mental distress, spending more time in front of a computer could be hazardous for health too Surkhali and Garbuja (2020). Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) faculty members, as well as students, were not able to perceive actual benefits in full in comparison to expected benefits due to the presence of challenges in the virtual classroom as moderators. The higher education authorities, colleges/institutes/universities need to fix the above issues to enhance the quality of the teaching-learning process. The higher education authorities, institutes/colleges/universities must work together to resolve the issues and challenges of virtual classrooms to improve their effectiveness of the virtual classroom. Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) may provide technical support, and training to the faculty members as well as students for a better experience in the virtual classroom. Students who are lacking technical infrastructures such as computers/laptops and internet connectivity may be provided by Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) with financial and technical support to these students.

Received: 18 November 2021
Accepted: 25 October 2022


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Author Biographies

Ajay Kumar Singh, University of Delhi, India

Senior Professor and Head, Department of Commerce and Dean, Faculty of Commerce & Business, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, India. Dr. Singh is Chairperson of Delhi University Sports Council. Dr. Singh is Honorary Professor of John Von Neumann University, Hungary and Formerly Vice Chancellor of Sri Sri University, Cuttack, Odisha (2019 to 2022). Prof. Singh is Fellow and Managing Trustee of Indian Commerce Association (ICA), Immediate Past President of Indian Commerce Association Delhi NCR Chapter, Past President of Rotary Club of Delhi Maurya, Past President of Indian Association for Management Development (IAMD), Fellow of Computer Society of India, Honorary. President of Governing Body of Divine Group of Institutions, DSPSR, and many NGOs. Prof. Singh (School topper, SRCC Alumnus, Editor-in-Chief: Delhi Business Review) has earned best teacher award for two consecutive years in 1998 and 1999 at IAMT. 9 best research paper awards, 45 Awards of National & Other levels, 12 International Awards and Distinctions have been conferred including 2 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and Other Distinctions. Dr. Singh was conferred by Indian Commerce Association (ICA), BEST BUSINESS ACADEMIC OF THE YEAR (BBAY) AWARD – 2011 GOLD MEDAL & MMSM Research Award 2011 & 2012 GOLD MEDAL. Prof. Singh has 35+ years of teaching experience in all with 227 publications including 10 books, 1 International Monograph, 118 research papers, 13 articles, 16 case studies, 59 editorial reviews, 2 abstracts, and 8 book reviews published in leading journals with total citations of 693, h index of 11, and i 10 index of 16 as on July 29, 2022 as per Google Scholar Citations.

Mukesh Kumar Meena, University of Delhi, India

Assistant Professor at Department of Commerce, Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi. He has been awarded the doctorate degree from Department of Commerce, Faculty of Commerce and Business, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, India, where he furthers his research on human resources accounting in service sector organizations. He received his master degree from the University of Delhi, and his bachelor Honours Degree from the Shri Ram College of Commerce (SRCC), University of Delhi in commerce. He is working as Assistant Professor at Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi. His research and publication interests include human resources accounting, corporate governance, corporate finance, accounting, and education.


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How to Cite
Singh, Ajay Kumar, and Mukesh Kumar Meena. 2022. “Teaching-Learning Process through Virtual Mode During the Pandemic Time: Systematic Literature Review and Gap Analysis”. Tuning Journal for Higher Education 10 (1), 337-72. https://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe.2252.