Competences in parallax in higher education from multiple standpoints in a Brazilian undergraduate program in International Business
This article, a summary of a broader doctoral research study by the author, has different research participants, namely: graduates, their employers, professors, the College Dean and the Program Chair. The goal is to identify how these subjects comprehend the teaching and learning processes of professional competences, in the context of a Brazilian higher education program in International Business. For the theoretical reference, we discuss the concept of competence with different theoretical foundations. We present educational tools that promote teaching and learning competences, in addition to addressing competences for the 21st century. Using Textual Discourse Analysis, we deconstruct and categorize the transcribed discussions by the participants. We arrive at units of meaning, which are related to cognition, behavior, management, pedagogy, and technology, among others. Graduates understand competences are developed through work experience. Professors incorporate life and professional problems into their pedagogical practice, in line with the Dean and Program Chair, who claim the use of market values to structure the program curriculum. As for the employers, they conceive of college as background for the development of professional competences, which in their opinion, occurs via work experience. The process of analyzing and connecting the units of meaning led to the development of two emerging categories: culture and technology. They are in constant action and reaction, moving the dimensions necessary for competent action, under the aegis of the technological paradigm.
Received: 25 August 2021
Accepted: 9 August 2022
Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditacion. “Informe Empleadores: Titulados Universitarios y Mercado Laboral” [Employers’s Report: University Graduates and Labor Market, my translation]. Accessed July 11, 2019. Proyecto Reflex, Madrid, Spain. http://www.aneca.es.
Arbix, Glauco, Mário Sérgio Salerno, Eduardo Zancul, Guilherme Amaral, and Leonardo Melo Lins. “O Brasil e a Nova Onda de Manufatura Avançada: O Que Aprender com Alemanha, China e Estados Unidos” [Advanced Manufacturing: What is to Be Learnt from Germany, the U. S., and China]. Novos Estudos Cebrap 36, no. 3 (November 2017): 29-49. https://doi.org/10.25091/S01013300201700030003.
Bennett, Nathan, and G. James Lemoine. “What a Difference a Word Makes: Understanding Threats to Performance in a VUCA World.” Business Horizons 57, no. 3 (2014): 311-317.
Behar, Patrícia Alejandra, Ana Carolina Ribeiro, Daisy Schneider, Ketia Kellen Araújo de Silva, Letícia Rocha Machado, and Magali Teresinha Longhi. “Educação a Distância e Competências: Uma Articulação Necessária” [Distance Learning and Competences: A Necessary Articulation, my translation]. In Competências em Educação a Distância, edited by Patrícia Alejandra Behar. Porto Alegre: Penso, 2013.
Bloom, Benjamin Samuel, David R. Krathwohl, and Bertram B. Masia. Taxonomia de Objetivos Educacionais: Domínio Cognitivo [Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals]. Porto Alegre: Globo, 1972.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Os Usos Sociais da Ciência: Por uma Sociologia Clínica do Campo Científico [Reflective Practitioner: Building a Critique, my translation]. São Paulo: Editora UNESP, 2004.
Castells, Manuel. The Rise of the Network Society. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2007.
Cornish, Linley. The Challenge of Developing Reflective Practitioners. In Higher Education and Learning, edited by Maria Emilia Amaral Engers, Marília Costa Morosini and Vera Felicetti. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, 2015.
Currant, Neil, Becka Currant, and Peter Hartley. Defining and Supporting the New Digital Students. In Universities into the 21st century. Learning Development in Higher Education, edited by Peter Hartley, John Hilsdon, Christine Keenan, Sandra Sinfield, and Michelle Verity. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Demo, Pedro. Habilidades e Competências no Século XXI [Abilities and Competences in the 21st Century, my translation]. Porto Alegre: Editora Mediação, 2012.
Gatti, Bernadete Angelina. Grupo Focal na Pesquisa em Ciências Sociais e Humanas [Focus Group in Social and Human Sciences Research, my translation]. Brasília: Liber Livro, 2005.
Gil, Antônio Carlos. Como Elaborar Projetos de Pesquisa [How to Prepare Research Projects, my translation]. São Paulo: Editora Atlas S.A., 2010.
Le Boterf, Guy. Desenvolvendo a Competência dos Profissionais [Developing Professional Competences, my translation]. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2003.
Marconi, Marina de Andrade, and Eva Maria Lakatos. Metodologia Científica [Scientific Methodology]. São Paulo: Editora Atlas S.A., 2010.
Meirieu, Philippe. Aprender... Sim, mas Como? [Learn... Yes, but How?, my translation]. São Paulo, SP: Martins Fontes, 1998.
Méndez, Juan Manuel Álvarez. “Avaliar a Aprendizagem em um Ensino Centrado nas Competências” [Evaluating Learning in a Competence-Centered Teaching Model, my translation]. In Educar por Competências. O que Há de Novo?, edited by José Gimeno Sacristán, Angel I. Pérez Gómez, Juan Bautista Martínez Rodríguez, Jurjo Torres Santomé, and Félix Angulo Rasco. Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed, 2011.
Moraes, Roque, Galiazzi, and Maria do Carmo. Análise Textual Discursiva [Textual Discourse Analysis]. Ijuí: UNIJUÍ, 2007.
Najmanovich, Denise. “O Feitiço do Método” [The Spell of the Method, my translation]. In Método; Métodos; Contramétodo, edited by Regina Leite Garcia. São Paulo: Cortez, 2003.
Oliveira Filho, Kepler de Souza, and Maria de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva. Astronomia e Astrofísica [Astronomy and Astrophysics]. São Paulo: Editora Livraria da Física, 2004.
Ontario Public Service, “21st Century Competences Foundation Document for Discussion.” Accessed July 19, 2019. http://www.edugains.ca/resources21CL/About21stCentury/21CL_21stCenturyCompetences.pdf.
OECD, “The Future of Education and Skills. Education 2030.” Accessed July, 25, 2019. https://www.oecd.org/education/2030/E2030%20Position%20Paper%20(05.04.2018).pdf.
Perrenoud, Philippe. Desenvolver Competências ou Ensinar Saberes? A Escola que Prepara para a Vida [Developing Competences or Teaching Knowledge? A School that Prepares You for Life, my translation]. Porto Alegre: Penso, 2013.
Pimenta, Selma Garrido. “Professor Reflexivo: Construindo uma Crítica” [Reflective Practitioner: Building a Critique, my translation]. In Professor Reflexivo no Brasil. Gênese e Crítica de um Conceito, edited by Selma Garrido Pimenta and Evandro Ghedin. São Paulo: Cortez Editora, 2008.
dos Santos, Priscilla Kohls, and Marília Costa Morosini. “Education for Global Citizenship and Internationalization of Higher Education: The Vision of the Academic Staff.” Revista Internacional de Educação Superior 5, (2019): 1-17. https://doi.org/10.20396/riesup.v5i0.8653913.
Schön, Donald Alan. Educando o Profissional Reflexivo: Um Novo Design para o Ensino e a Aprendizagem [Educating the Reflective Practioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions]. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2000.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, “Global Citizenship Education: Preparing Learners for the Challenges of the 21st Century.” Accessed July 20, 2019. ISBN: 978-92-3-100019-5, https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000227729.
World Economic Forum, “We Need a Global Reskilling Revolution – Here’s Why.” Accessed July 03, 2020. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/reskillingrevolution-jobs-future-skills/.
Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2005.
Zabala, Antoni, and Laia Arnau. Como Aprender e Ensinar Competências [How to Teach and Learn Competences, my translation]. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2010.
Zarifian, Philippe. Objetivo Competência: Por uma Nova Lógica [Objective Competence: for a New Logic, my translation]. São Paulo: Atlas, 2001.
Authors are required to sign and submit a copyright transfer agreement after acceptance but before publication of their manuscript. To that effect, they receive, from the Managing Editor of Tuning Journal for Higher Education, a standard copyright assignment form designed along the following lines:
The author who signs the copyright transfer agreement must be the sole creator of the work or legally acting on behalf of and with the full agreement of all the contributing authors.
2. Copyright and Code of conduct:
a) Authors warrant that their work is original; has not been previously copyrighted or published in any form; is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; its submission and publication do not violate TJHE Ethical Guidelines for Publication and any codes (of conduct), privacy and confidentiality agreements, laws or any rights of any third party; and no publication payment by the Publisher (University of Deusto) is required.
b) Authors are solely liable for the consequences that may arise from third parties’ complaints about the submitted manuscript and its publication in Tuning Journal for Higher Education (TJHE).
c) Authors grant to the Publisher the worldwide, sub-licensable, and royalty-free right to exploit the work in all forms and media of expression, now known or developed in the future, for educational and scholarly purposes.
d) Authors retain the right to archive, present, display, distribute, develop, and republish their work (publisher's version) to progress their scientific career provided the original publication source (Tuning Journal) is acknowledged properly and in a way that does not suggest the Publisher endorses them or their use of the wortk.
e) Authors warrant that no permissions or licences of any kind will be granted that might infringe the rights granted to the Publisher.
Tuning Journal for Higher Education is an Open Access publication. Its content is free for full and immediate access, reading, search, download, distribution and reuse in any medium or format only for non-commercial purposes and in compliance with any applicable copyright legislation, without prior permission from the Publisher or the author(s). In any case, proper acknowledgement of the original publication source must be made and any changes to the original work must be indicated clearly and in a manner that does not suggest the author’s and or Publisher’s endorsement whatsoever. Any other use of its content in any medium or format, now known or developed in the future, requires prior written permission of the copyright holder.