Students applying their knowledge of material science in problem-solving: implications for competence based-learning at the University of Zimbabwe
This study involved a class of serving teachers in their second year of a Bachelor of Education degree programme, in which one of the pre-requisite courses covered during first year was ‘Principles of Material Science (PMS). At the time of study, they were studying ‘Machine-shop Practice’ (MsP); a course based on the Design and Technology (D&T) approach, in terms of teaching and learning. They were required to solve practical-technical problems through hands-on practical activities, supported by relevant ancillary theory. In practice, during such activities, students are expected to demonstrate the ability to apply their knowledge of Material Science (MS) in various ways; for example, in the choice of materials for given projects aimed at solving specific problems and in the methods of working such materials. Now given this background, the problem was therefore to determine the extent to which students applied their knowledge of MS in solving selected problems under MsP. Data were gathered through interviews, discussions, observations and document analysis. Findings showed students being able to apply their knowledge of MS effectively during problem-solving under MsP; thereby, qualifying their learning as having been outcome-based in nature.
Published online: 31 May 2017
Apple, W. Michael. “The politics of official knowledge in the United States.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 22, no. 4 (1990): 377-383.
Barrow, Robin. Giving teaching back to teachers: A critical introduction to curriculum theory. Sussex: Wheatheaf Books, 1984.
Berlak, Ann, and Harold Berlak. “Towards a non-hierarchical approach to inquiry and leadership.” Curriculum Inquiry 13, no. 3 (1983): 267-294.
Bowers, Alex C., and David J. Flinders. Responsive teaching. New York: Teachers’ College Press (Columbia University), 1990.
Bowser, Wayland. “Reforming design education.” Journal of Architectural Education 37, no. 2 (1983): 1-37.
Bradley, D. John. “Science education at the RADMASTE Centre: The role of the university in development.” In Science and environment education: Views from developing countries, edited by S. Ware, 141-150. Washington: The World Bank, 1999.
Candy, Philip C., Gay Crebert, and Jane O’Leary. “Developing lifelong learners through undergraduate education.” In National Board of Employment, Education and Training Commissioned Report No. 28, edited by Philip C. Candy, Gay Crebert, and Jane O’Leary. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1994.
Cornbleth, Catherine. “Ritual and rationality in teacher education reform.” Educational Researcher 15, no. 4 (1986): 5-14.
_____. Curriculum in context. New York: The Falmer Press, 1990.
Dewey, John. “Individuality and experience.” In Art and Education, 180. Marion — Pa.: Barnes Foundation, 1929.
_____. John Dewey on education: Selected writings, edited by Reginald D. Archambault. New York: Random House, 1964.
Doll, C. Ronald. Curriculum improvement: Decision making and process. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1996.
Donald, David, Sandy Lazarus, and Peliwe Lolwana. Educational psychology in social context. London: Sage Publications, 2002.
English, W. Fenwick. “Contemporary curriculum circumstances.” In Fundamental curriculum designs, edited by Fenwick W.English, 1-17. California: ASCD Yearbook, 1983.
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder, 1970.
_____. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1972.
_____. The politics of education, culture, Power and liberation. South Hadley, Mass.: Bergin and Garvey, 1985.
_____. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum, 1990.
Gagne, R. Mills. The condition of learning, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1987.
Gagnier, Regenia. “Feminist postmodernism: The end of theory?” In Theoretical perspectives on sexual differences, edited by Deborar L. Rhode, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. 1990.
Garratt, James. Design and technology. London: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Ginsburg, B. Mark. “Reproduction, contradictions, and conceptions of curriculum in pre-service teacher education.” Curriculum Inquiry 16, no. 3 (1986): 283-309.
Glenn, D. Allen and Carol A. Carrier. “Teacher education and computer training: An assessment (Beyond the computer revolution).” Peabody Journal of Education 64, no. 1 (1986): 67-80.
Government of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset): Towards an Empowered Society and a Growing Economy October 2013-December 2018. Harare: Government printers, 2013.
_____. Zimbabwe Education Blueprint 2015-2022: Curriculum Framework for Primary and Secondary Education. Harare: Government printers, 2015.
Harris, Peter, Linda Snell, Martin Talbot, and Ronald M. Harden. Competency-based medical education: Implication for undergraduate programmes. Edited by Medical Faculty, University of Sydney: New South Wales, 2010.
Harvey, David. The Condition of Post-Modernity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1992.
Keeves, P. John and Glen S. Aikenhead. “Science curriculum in changing world.” In Improving science education, edited by B. F. Fraser and H. J. Walberg, 13-45. Chicago: The National Society for the Study of Education, 1995.
Kelly, A. Victor. Curriculum context: A comparative approach. London: Happer and Row Publishers, 1980.
Kilpatrick, W. Heard. Foundation of education. New York: Macmillan, 1926.
Kohl, Herbert. “Towards educational change and economic justice.” Phi Delta Kappan 72, no. 9 (1991): 678-681.
Kwaira, Peter. “A study to determine the extent to which the Design and Technology approach is being relevant to the teaching of technical subjects in Zimbabwe.” In Proceedings of the eighth annual meeting of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education, edited by Sechaba Mahlomaholo. Port Elizabeth: University of Port Elizabeth, 2000.
Kwaira, Peter. “Problems experienced by teachers in their efforts to implement the Design and Technology approach in the teaching of technical subjects.” In IDATER’98, edited by Smith, J. S, 224-229. Loughborough: Department of Design and Technology — Loughborough University, 1998.
Kyriacou, Chris. Effective teaching in schools. New York: Simon & Schuster Education, 1994.
Lazarowtz, Reuven, and Pinchas Tamir. “Research on using laboratory in science instruction.” In A handbook of research in science teaching and learning, edited by Dan Gabel, 94-128. New York: Macmillan, 1994.
Mafumiko, Fidelis, and Wout Ottevanger. “Micro-scale experiments in improving practical chemistry in Tanzania secondary science education.” In Science education research and teacher development in Tanzania, edited by Osaki, K. et al. 121-134. Amsterdam: VrijeUniversiteit Amsterdam — International Cooperation Centre, 2002.
Marsh, J. Colin, and George Willis. Curriculum: Alternative approaches, ongoing issues. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill, 2003.
McNeil, John. Curriculum: A comprehensive introduction. Glenview III: Scott Foreman, 1990.
Meachum, J. Shuaib. “Vygotsky and the blues: Re-reading cultural connections and conceptual development.” Theory into Practice 40 (2001): 190-197.
Melnick, Blake. “Virtual Schools: The changing face of education — Learning with technology.” The English Journal: The world of literature 91, no. 5 (2002): 85-88.
Moore,W. Terry. Philosophy of education — An introduction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.
Mumford, Enid. “Participation systems design: Practice and theory.” Journal of Occupational Behaviour 4, no. 1 (1983): 47-57.
National Commission for Excellence in Teacher Education (NCETE). A call for change in teachers education. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges in Teacher Education, 1985.
National Conference on Teacher Education Report (NCTER), Teacher education for the 21st. century: Issues and strategies. Harare: Ministry Of Education and Culture — Zimbabwe, 2000.
Neville, C. Robert. The high road around modernism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.
Ornstein, C. Allan and Francis P. Hunkins. Curriculum foundations, principles, and issues. London: Allyn and Bacon, 2004.
Oxford, L. Richardson. “Constructivism: Shape-shifting, substance, and teacher education applications.” Peabody Journal of Education 72, no. 1 (1997): 35-66.
Patton, M. Quinn. Qualitative research and evaluation methods. London: Sage Publications — International and Professional Publisher, 2002.
Peters, Michael. Education and the postmodern condition. Westport, Conn.: Bergin and Garvey, 1995.
Peters, R. Stanley. The philosophy of science. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.
Pinar, F. William. “Farewell and celebrate”. In Contemporary curriculum discourses, edited by William F. Pinar, New York: Peter Lang, 1999.
Posner, J. George. Analysing the curriculum. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992.
Powell, J. Carlson and Ronald D. Anderson. ‘Changing teachers’ practice: Curriculum materials and science education reform in the USA.’ Studies in science education 37 (2002): 107-136.
Pratt, David. Curriculum planning. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1994.
Robson, Colin. Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1993.
Seigfried, C. Haddock. Pragmatism and Feminism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Slattery, Patrick. Curriculum development in the postmodern era. New York: Garland Publishing, 1995.
Smith, R. Stephen, and Richard Dollase. “Outcome based education: Part 2 — Planning, implementing and evaluating a competency-based curriculum.” Medical Teacher 21, no. 1 (1999): 15-22.
Sowell, J. Evelyn. Curriculum: An integrative introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, An imprint of Prentice Hall, 1996.
Toohey, Susan. Designing courses for higher education. Buckingham, UK: Society for Research into Higher Education, 1999.
Van den Akker, Jan. “Principles and methods of development research’. In Design approaches and tools in education and training edited by Jan van den Akker, R. Branch, K. Gustafson, N. Nieveen and T. J. Plomp, 1-14. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, 1999.
Vygotsky, S. Lev. Thought and language. Edited by Alex Kozulin, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1986.
Ware, Sylvia. Secondary school science in developing countries. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1992.
Wiles, Jon. Curriculum essentials: A resource for educators. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2005.
Zvobgo, R. Jonas. Transforming education: The Zimbabwean experience. Harare: The College Press,1986.
Authors are required to sign and submit a copyright transfer agreement after acceptance but before publication of their manuscript. To that effect, they receive, from the Managing Editor of Tuning Journal for Higher Education, a standard copyright assignment form designed along the following lines:
The author who signs the copyright transfer agreement must be the sole creator of the work or legally acting on behalf of and with the full agreement of all the contributing authors.
2. Copyright and Code of conduct:
a) Authors warrant that their work is original; has not been previously copyrighted or published in any form; is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; its submission and publication do not violate TJHE Ethical Guidelines for Publication and any codes (of conduct), privacy and confidentiality agreements, laws or any rights of any third party; and no publication payment by the Publisher (University of Deusto) is required.
b) Authors are solely liable for the consequences that may arise from third parties’ complaints about the submitted manuscript and its publication in Tuning Journal for Higher Education (TJHE).
c) Authors grant to the Publisher the worldwide, sub-licensable, and royalty-free right to exploit the work in all forms and media of expression, now known or developed in the future, for educational and scholarly purposes.
d) Authors retain the right to archive, present, display, distribute, develop, and republish their work (publisher's version) to progress their scientific career provided the original publication source (Tuning Journal) is acknowledged properly and in a way that does not suggest the Publisher endorses them or their use of the wortk.
e) Authors warrant that no permissions or licences of any kind will be granted that might infringe the rights granted to the Publisher.
Tuning Journal for Higher Education is an Open Access publication. Its content is free for full and immediate access, reading, search, download, distribution and reuse in any medium or format only for non-commercial purposes and in compliance with any applicable copyright legislation, without prior permission from the Publisher or the author(s). In any case, proper acknowledgement of the original publication source must be made and any changes to the original work must be indicated clearly and in a manner that does not suggest the author’s and or Publisher’s endorsement whatsoever. Any other use of its content in any medium or format, now known or developed in the future, requires prior written permission of the copyright holder.