The assessment of service quality effect in higher education sector on satisfaction, suggestion, and behavioral intention of university students: The case of Turkey

Keywords: service quality in higher education, hedperf scale, satisfaction, suggestion, behavioral intention


The number of enterprises in the service sector is increasing with the time and the market for service sector is expanding. Universities as higher education institutions were affected by these developments in the service sector and have included providing quality service to their internal and external stakeholders as their top priority. Providing quality service in a university affects the satisfaction of students, who are among the most important stakeholders, their intention to suggest university to potential students and to visit after graduation. Hedperf scale was used to measure the service quality at universities and various institutions in different countries. The construct validity of the Hedperf scale was investigated according to the student perceptions at a university in Turkey and it was found with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) that service quality dimensions were classified into four dimensions - academic, non-academic, reputation, and access. Among these dimensions, the effect of academic, reputation and access dimensions on satisfaction, suggestion, and behavioral intention for visiting after graduation was determined, while the effect of non-academic dimension was not determined. Service quality dimensions explain approximately 31% of the variability in overall satisfaction. Access affects satisfaction at the level of β = .322, which is more than other dimensions. It was determined that the service quality dimensions explained 17% of the behavioral intention to “visit the university after graduation” and the effect of access (β = .264) among these dimensions was higher than the other dimensions. University service quality dimensions explain 23% of the intention for “suggest the university to potential students”, and it was determined that the reputation dimension has the strongest effect (β = .367). The research explores the link between service quality and satisfaction, suggestion, behavioral intention and determines the construct validity of the scale developed in a foreign culture.

Received: 22 March 2022
Accepted: 16 January 2023


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Esen Gürbüz, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey

PhD, is Professor of Marketing at Nigde Omer Halisdemir Universty, Turkey. Dr. Gürbüz’s teaching and research interests are concentrated in the areas of business marketing. Her research has been published in the Journal of Political Marketing, EuroMed Journal of Business, Ege Academic Review, Istanbul Business Research, InTech Open, and other publications.

Muhammet Bayraktar, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey

PhD, has a doctorate degree at Nigde Omer Halisdemir Universty and works as the Faculty Secretary. Dr. Bayraktar’s research interests are concentrated in the areas of business marketing and higher education. He carries out an administrative task at Nigde Omer Halisdemir University and is closely related to higher education business processes.


Abdullah, Firdaus. 2005. “HEdPERF versus SERVPERF: The quest for ideal measuring instrument of service quality in higher education sector.” Quality Assurance in Education 13 (4): 305-328.

Abdullah, Firdaus. 2006a. “Measuring service quality in higher education: three instruments compared.” International Journal of Research & Method in Education 29 (1): 71-89.

Abdullah, Firdaus. 2006b. “The development of HEdPERF: a new measuring instrument of service quality for the higher education sector.” International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30 (6): 569-581.

Abdullah, Firdaus. 2006c. “Measuring service quality in higher education: HEdPERF versus SERVPERF.” Marketing Intelligence & Planning 24 (1): 31–47.

Açan, Bora, and Reha Saydan. 2009. “The Evaluation of Academic Quality Expectation of the University Teachers: The Case of Kafkas University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences.” The Journal of Atatürk University Social Sciences 13 (2): 225-253.

Ali, Faizan, Yuan Zhou, Kashif Hussain, Pradeep K. Nair, and Neethiahnanthan A. Ragavan 2016. “Does higher education service quality effect student satisfaction, image and loyalty?: A study of international students in malaysian public universities,” Quality Assurance in Education 24 (1): 70-94.

Ali, Omar, Siti Rapidah, Md Shariff, Nor Alesha, Mohd Said, Nur Shafini and Khalid A. Mat. 2020. “The Effects of Service Quality Dimensions on Students’Satisfaction: Hedperf Model Adoption.” Jurnal Intelek 15 (1): 69-76.

Annamdevula, Subrahmanyam, and Raja S. Bellamkonda. 2016. “Effect of student perceived service quality on student satisfaction, loyalty and motivation in Indian universities Development of HiEduQual.” Journal of Modelling in Management, 11 (2): 488-517.

del Carmen Arrieta, María, and Beatrice Avoli. 2020. “Factors of Higher Education Quality Service: The Case of a Peruvian University.” Quality Assurance in Education 28 (4): 219-238.

Banahene, Stephen, Jerry J. Kraa, and Philipine A. Kasu. 2018. “Impact of HEdPERF on Students’ Satisfaction and Academic Performance in Ghanaian Universities; Mediating Role of Attitude towards Learning.” Open Journal of Social Sciences 6 (May): 96-119.

Bertaccini, Bruno, Silvia Bacci, and Alessandra Petrucci. 2021. “A graduates’ satisfaction index for the evaluation of the university overall quality.” Socio- Economic Planning Sciences 73: 1-7.

Boulding, William, Ajay, Richard Staelin, and Valarie A. Zeithaml. 1993. “A dynamic process model of service quality: From expectations to behavioral intentions.” Journal of Marketing Research, 30 (February): 7-27.

Brochado, Ana. 2009. “Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education.” Quality Assurance in Education, 17 (2):174-190.

Browne, Beverly A., Dennis O. Kaldenberg, William G. Browne, and Daniel J. Brown. 1998. “Student as Customer: Factors Affecting Satisfaction and Assessments of Institutional Quality.” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 8 (3): 1-14.

Campos, Domingos F., Guido S. dos Santos, and Felipe N. Castro. 2017. Variations in student perceptions of service quality of higher education institutions in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study.” Quality Assurance in Education, 25 (4): 394-414.

Casidy, Riza. 2014. “Linking Brand Orientation with Service Quality, Satisfaction, and Positive Word-of-Mouth: Evidence from the Higher Education Sector.” Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 26 (2): 142-161.

Chaudhary, Sartaj, Ajoy K. Dey. 2021. “Influence of student-perceived service quality on sustainability practices of university and student satisfaction.” Quality Assurance in Education, 29 (1): 29-40.

Chong, Yit S., and Pervaiz K. Ahmed. 2012. “An empirical investigation of students’ motivational impact upon university service quality perception: a self- determination perspective.” Quality in Higher Education, 18 (1): 35-57.

Cinkir, Sakir, Sevgi Yildiz, and Gul Kurum. 2022, “The Effect of Undergraduate Students’Perceived Service Quality on Student Commitment.” SAGE Open, April-June: 1–15.

Clemes, Michael D., Christopher E. C. Gan, and Tzu-Hui Kao. 2008. “University Student Satisfaction:An Empirical Analysis.” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17 (2): 292-325.

Clemes, D. Michael, Cohen A. David, and Wang Yang. 2013. “Understanding Chinese university students’ experiences: an empirical analysis.” Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25 (3): 391-427.

Calvo-Porral, Cristina, Jean-Pierre Lévy-Mangin, and Isabel Novo-Corti. 2013. “Perceived quality in higher education: an empirical study.” Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 31 (6): 601–619.

De Jager, Johan, and Gbolahan Gbadamosi. 2010. “Specific remedy for specific problem: measuring service quality in South African higher education.” Higher Education, 60 (3): 251-267.

Dewi, Ratna S., Melinda Roza, Muhamad Taridi, Alek Alek, Fahrurrozi. 2020. “Nexus between quality of education, student satisfaction and student loyalty: the case of department of english teacher education at Universitas Islam Negeri in Indonesia.” International Journal for Quality Research, 15 (1): 89–106.

Dlačić, Jasmina, Maja Arslanagić, Selma Kadić-Maglajlić, Suzana Marković, and Sanja Raspor. 2014. “Exploring perceived service quality, perceived value, and repurchase intention in higher education using structural equation modelling.” Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25 (1-2): 141-157.

Dužević, Ines, Anita Čeh Časni, and Tonći Lazibat. 2015. “Students’perception of the higher education service quality.” Croatian Journal of Education, 17 (4): 37-67.

Elliott, M. Kevin, and Shin, Dooyoung. 2002. “Student Satisfaction: An alternative approach to assessing this important concept.” Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 24 (2): 197-209.

Ghobehei, Mohsen, Faraz Sadeghvaziri, Elham Ebrahimi, and Khashayar A. Bakeshloo. 2019. “The effects of perceived brand orientation and perceived service quality in the higher education sector.” Eurasian Business Review 9: 347–365.

Gruber, Thorsten, Stefan Fuß, Roediger Voss, and Michaela Gläser-Zikuda. 2010. “Examining student satisfaction with higher education services: Using a new measurement tool.” International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23 (2): 105-123.

Gürbüz, Esen, Arzum Büyükkeklik, Mutlu Yüksel Avcılar, and Murat Toksarı. 2008. “The effect of perceived service quality on satisfaction and behavioural intentions:an empirical study on supermarkets in Nigde.” Ege Academic Review, 8 (2): 785-812.

Haverila, Matti, and Haverila K.Christian. 2022. “The impact of the student– instructor relationship on student-centric measures.” Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 14 (1): 240-263.

Hellier, Phillip K., Gus M. Geursen, Rodney A. Carr, and John A. Rickard. 2003. “Customer Repurchase Intention: A General Structurel Equation Model.” European Journal of Marketing, 37 (11-12): 1762-1800.

Howell, David C. 2006. Statistical Methods for Psychology. 7th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Cengage/Wadsworth.

Htang, Ling K. 2021. “A look at university student service quality and satisfaction.” Quality Assurance in Education, 29 (2/3): 101-115.

Khalid, Sulaiman M., Khairul A. M. Ali, and Zafir K. M. Makhbul. 2019. “Assessing the effect of higher education service quality on job satisfaction among lecturers in premier polytechnics using HEdPERF model.” LogForum, 15 (3): 425-436.

Khoo, Susie, Ha Huong, and Sue L. T. McGroger. 2017. “Service quality and student/customer satisfaction in the private tertiary education sector in Singapore.” International Journal of Educational Management, 31 (4): 430-444.

Kruja, Drita, Huong Ha, and Elvira Tabaku. 2021. “Students’perception and satisfaction of services provided by public and private higher education institutes: a case study in Albania.” International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 13 (3): 359-380.

Lau, Melissa Y. M. 2016. “Effects of 8Ps of services marketing on student selection of self-financing sub-degree programmes in Hong Kong.” International Journal of Educational Management, 30 (3): 386-402.

Lazibat, Tonci, Tomislav Baković, and Ines Dužević. 2014. “How perceived service quality influences students’satisfaction? Teachers’ and students’ perspectives.” Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25 (7/8): 923-934.

Mahmoud, Ali B., and Bayan Khalifa. 2015. “A confirmatory factor analysis for SERVPERF instrument based on a sample of students from Syrian universities.” Education and Training, 57 (3): 343–359.

Mang’unyi, Eric E., and Krishna K. Govender. 2014. “Perceived service quality (SQ) and customer satisfaction (CS): Students’perceptions of Kenyan Private Universities.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (23): 2739-2748.

Moslehpour, Massoud, Ka Y. Chau, JingJing Zheng, Asalia N. Hanjani, and Minh Hoang. 2020. “The mediating role of international student satisfaction in the influence of higher education service quality on institutional reputation in Taiwan.” International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 12: 1–16.

Muhammad, Nisar, Shahid J. Kakakhel, and Fayaz A. Shah. 2018. “Effect of Service Quality on Customers Satisfaction: An Application of HEdPERF Model.” Review of Economics and Development Studies, 4 (2): 165-177.

Mulyono, Hardi, Arief Hadian, Nelvitia Purba, and Rudy Pramono. 2020. “Effect of Service Quality Toward Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in Higher Education.” Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7 (10): 929–938.

Mustaffaa, Wan S. W., Mass H. A. Halid, Khuan W. Khuan, and Abdul R. Rafiduraida. 2016. “Investigating the Relationship among Service Quality, Emotional Satisfaction and Favorable Behavioral Intentions in Higher Education Service Experience.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224: 499 – 507.

Narang, Ritu. 2012. “How do management students perceive the quality of education in public institutions?” Quality Assurance in Education, 20 (4): 357-371.

O’Neill, Martin A., and Adrian Palmer. 2004. “Importance-performance analysis: a useful tool for directing continuous quality improvement in higher education.” Quality Assurance in Education, 12 (1): 39-52.

Osman, Abu R., and Ruswiati S. Saputra, 2019. “A pragmatic model of student satisfaction: a viewpoint of private higher education.” Quality Assurance in Education, 27 (2): 142-165.

Parasuraman, Parsu A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry. 1988. “SERVEQUAL: A Multible-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perseptions of Service Quality.” Journal of Retailing, 64 (1): 12-40.

Pardiyono, Ragil, Jaja Suteja, Hermita D. Puspita, Undang Juju. 2022. “Dominant factors for the marketing of private higher education.” Decision Science Letters, 11: 137–146.

Purwanto, Yuli, Irwan Noor, and Andriani Kusumawati, 2020. “Service Quality Measurement through Higher Education Performance (HEDPERF): The Case of an Indonesian Public University.” Wacana, Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora, 23(1): 10-16.

Randheer, Kokku. 2015. “Service quality performance scale in higher education: Culture as a new dimension.” International Business Research, 8 (3): 29-41.

Riznić, Dejan, Janka T. Petrovičová, Tamara Rajić, and Jaroslav Ďaďo. 2013. “Linking Service Quality and Satisfaction to Behavioural Intentions in Higher Education Setting.” Ekonomický časopis, 61 (6): 578 – 596.

Rodríguez-González, Francisco G., and Paulina Segarra. 2016. “Measuring academic service performance for competitive advantage in tertiary education institutions: the development of the Tedperf scale.” International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 13 (2): 171-183.

Saad, Nada 2013. “Students’ perceptions of higher education quality at Notre Dame University-Louaize in Lebanon.” PhD Dissertation, Saint Louis University.

Schermelleh-Engel, Karin, Helfried Moosbrogger, and Hans Müller. 2003. “Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures.” Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8 (2): 23–74.

Sharabati, Abdel-Aziz A., Mohammad M. Alhileh, and Hesham Abusaimeh. 2019. “Effect of service quality on graduates’ satisfaction.” Quality Assurance in Education, 27 (3): 320-337.

Sheeja, V. S., R. Krishnaraj, and R. M. Harindranath. 2014. “Evaluation of higher education service quality scale in pharmaceutical education.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 28 (2): 263-266.

Singh, Sonali, and Jasial Sumeet S. 2021. “Moderating effect of perceived trust on service quality – student satisfaction relationship: evidence from Indian higher management education institutions.” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 31 (2): 280-304.

Subrahmanyam, Annamdevula. 2017. “Relationship between service quality, satisfaction, motivation and loyalty A multi-dimensional perspective.” Quality Assurance in Education, 25 (2): 171-188.

Sultan, Parves and Wong, H. Yin. 2010. “Service quality in higher education–a review and research agenda.” International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 2 (2): 259-272.

Sultan, Parves, and Ho Y. Wong. 2012. “Service quality in a higher education context: an integrated model.” Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 24(5): 755-784.

Sultan, Parves, and Ho Y. Wong. 2013. “Antecedents and consequences of service quality in a higher education context: a qualitative research approach.” Quality Assurance in Education, 21 (1): 70-95.

Sultan, Parves and Wong, Ho Yin. 2014. “An integrated-process model of service quality, institutional brand and behavioural intentions: The case of a University.” Managing Service Quality, 24 (5): 487-521.

Ushantha, Chanaka R. A., and Kumara P. A. P. Samantha 2016. “A quest for service quality in higher education: Empirical evidence from Sri Lanka.” Services Marketing Quarterly, 37 (2): 98-108.

Yıldız, Suleyman M., and Ali Kara. 2009. “The Pesperf scale: An instrument for measuring service quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (PESS).” Quality Assurance in Education, 17 (4): 393-415.

Tabachnick, Barbara G., and Linda S. Fidell. 2007. Using Multivariate Statistics. 5th ed., New York, New York: Pearson.

Tan, Peter S. H., Yuen O. Choong, and I-Chi Chen. 2021. “The effect of service quality on behavioural intention: the mediating role of student satisfaction and switching barriers in private universities.” Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 14 (4): 1394-1413.

Teeroovengadum, Viraiyan, Robin Nunkoo, Christian Gronroos, T.J. Kamalanabhan, and Ashley K. Seebaluck. 2019. “Higher education service quality, student satisfaction and loyalty Validating the HESQUAL scale and testing an improved structural model.” Quality Assurance in Education, 27 (4): 427-445.

Tsinidou, Maria, Vassilis Gerogiannis, and Panos Fitsilis. 2010. “Evaluation of the factors that determine quality in higher education: an empirical study.” Quality Assurance in Education, 18 (3): 227-244.

Zeithaml, Valarie A., Leonard L. Berry, and A. Parasuraman. 1996. “The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality.” Journal of Marketing, 60 (April): 31-46.

How to Cite
Gürbüz, Esen, and Muhammet Bayraktar. 2023. “The Assessment of Service Quality Effect in Higher Education Sector on Satisfaction, Suggestion, and Behavioral Intention of University Students: The Case of Turkey”. Tuning Journal for Higher Education 10 (2), 69-103.