Virtual education during COVID-19 in higher education: A systematic review

Keywords: online learning, distance learning, distance education, teaching digital competence, technological tools


The objective of the present systematic review aimed to analyze studies linked to online teaching-learning, digital competence tutoring, and technological tools in virtual education during COVID-19 in higher education. The suggested methodology by the PRISMA declaration was pursued; the information search was conducted in Scopus, EBSCO, Springer Open, ProQuest, and One File. The target period ranged from May 10, 2021, to July 4, 2021; the identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion for its progress were performed. The search produced a total of 230 studies, with 45 remaining. The inclusion criteria included original peer-reviewed research articles and qualitative and quantitative studies in higher education, comprising teachers and students addressing the study objective. In contrast, the exclusion criteria covered bibliographic reviews with procedural deficiencies, studies not exposed to a peer review process, and those not depicting a relationship with parts of the study. The results reveal that online teaching-learning, digital competence tutoring, and technological tools have been affirmative features expected to persist in higher virtual education engendered by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Received: 5 October 2021
Accepted: 22 April 2022


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Author Biographies

Fatima del Socorro Torres-Caceres, César Vallejo University, Peru

Professor at the Graduate School of the César Vallejo University of Lima, Peru in various curricular experiences and especially in Design and Development of the Research Project of the academic programs of Education and Public Management. She obtained her Doctorate in Education and Master in Educational Sciences at the Enrique Guzmán y Valle National University (Lima-Peru); She has a master’s degree in Public Management from the César Vallejo University; She has a degree in Primary Education and a Bachelor of Administrative Sciences from the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega Private University. At a higher level, she has experience as a teacher, advisor and thesis jury at the War School of the Peruvian Air Force and the FAP Training and Improvement School; as an undergraduate teacher at the Señor de Sipán University and Telesup; experience at the teaching level in Institutes, CETPRO and in students of the primary level of basic education; experience as an external evaluator in the institutional accreditation process; she has conducted Research in the fields of Education and Public Management.

Juan Méndez-Vergaray, César Vallejo University, Peru

Professor at the Universidad César Vallejo Lima-Peru, at the Graduate School in the Doctorate program. He works in the research area, develops topics of educational inclusion, management and governance, education. He obtained a bachelor’s degree from the Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos in 1988 and a specialist degree in Hearing, Language and Learning from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú in 2011. He obtained a Master’s degree in Educational Psychology from Universidad César Vallejo (UCV) at the year 2012 and the degree of Doctor in Psychology at the César Vallejo University in 2015. He worked as a research assistant at the National Institute of Educational Research INIDE-PERÚ (1974-1975), began his work in basic education in 1978, He was a teacher and research coordinator at the “Jesús el Maestro” Higher Pedagogical Institute from 2002 to 2008, a university professor since 2014 at the César Vallejo University. He currently has more than 20 scientific articles published.

Edith Gissela Rivera-Arellano, César Vallejo University, Peru

Professor at the César Vallejo University, Lima-Peru in the Graduate School of the Master’s and Doctorate programs. She works in the research area, addressing issues of educational inclusion, administrative and pedagogical management. He obtained his bachelor’s degree from the José Faustino Sánchez Carrión National University (UNSACA) in 2003. Later he was awarded a Master’s Degree in Education Administration from the César Vallejo University (UCV) in 2012, a second specialty in Education Inclusive in 2013 and the Degree of Doctor of Education at the Feminine University of the Sacred Heart (UNIFE) in 2019. She began her work as a basic education teacher in 2010 in the care of students with disabilities and as a university teacher in 2013 at the César Vallejo University. From 2015 to 2019 she was a professor at Norbert Wiener University in Graduate School. Currently she has published several scientific articles in the educational area in high impact magazines.

Mildred Jénica Ledesma-Cuadros, César Vallejo University, Peru

Currently exercises her professional activities as a professor at the Graduate School of the César Vallejo University (Lima -Peru) where she teaches in the Master’s and Doctorate programs and as a teacher at the Fe y Alegría 4 Educational Institution (Lima-Peru). She obtained her bachelor’s degree in Primary Education from the Federico Villarreal National University (UNFV), a Master’s degree in Education with a mention in Teaching and Educational Management from the César Vallejo University (UCV) and a PhD in Education Administration from the César Vallejo University (UCV) in 2013. She began her work activities in Regular Basic Education in 1999 and in Higher Education in 2014. She is a CONCYTEC Researcher, with Renacyt code: P0073520, as of 2020 and a member of the Professional College of Teachers from Peru with Registration Number: 0901248099 as of 2016. She made several scientific publications in high impact indexed journals, mainly in the educational field.

Yolanda Josefina Huayta-Franco, César Vallejo University, Peru

Research professor at the César Vallejo University (UCV) Lima-Peru, in the Postgraduate Unit of the Master’s and Doctorate programs. He began his higher studies at the Inca Garcilaso De la Vega University (UIGV) Lima-Peru, at the Faculty of Education, specializing in Historical, Social and Philosophical Sciences, after obtaining a degree in 1994, he moved to the César Vallejo University (UCV), to continue his postgraduate studies, obtaining a Master’s Degree in Education with a specialization in “Teaching and Educational Management”, in 2012 and a Doctorate in Education Degree in 2014. In addition, it has Diplomas in “Training of Specialists in Virtual Learning Environments” (UCV) in 2021, “Tutoring in Virtual Learning Environments” (UCV) in 2019, “Statistics Applied to Scientific Research” in the San Martín de Porras University (USMP) in 2019, “Postgraduate Research Didactics” (UCV) in 2018. Visiting professor at the Mariana University (UM) Pasto-Colombia, in the Master’s in Pedagogy Unit, in the year 2021. It is Affiliated with the César Vallejo University (UCV) from 2014 to the present, with extensive experience in the chair on research and teaching of specialty curricular experiences in educational sciences, in undergraduate and graduate units, in programs both in education, as in public management; She provides advice for the preparation of undergraduate, master’s and doctoral theses. Being the main fields of investigation the sciences of the education, pedagogy and social sciences; she with several scientific publications in high impact indexed journals, available at

Edward Flores, National University Federico Villarreal, Peru

PhD in Systems Engineering, Master in Administration, Systems Engineer and Bachelor of Education, Head of the Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit, Coordinator of the research module of the Acacia International Network, head of the Group of Research Innovation, Infrastructure and Intelligent Systems, Director of the Professional School of Computer Engineering, Head of the Postgraduate Unit and Information Security Officer at the National University Federico Villarreal, member of the Peruvian Institute for Advanced Engineering Research, Renacyt Researcher by Concytec in Peru, has publications of articles and book chapters in Scopus, WoS, among others, peer reviewer of high impact journals, undergraduate and graduate teachers in various universities. Previously he has been past-dean and project manager in Information Technology at a national and international level, he has international certifications such as Project Management Professional PMP®, Scrum Master Certified SMC™, Scrum Fundamentals Certified SFC™, IT Service Management ITIL4®, Kanban KIKF™.


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How to Cite
Torres-Caceres, Fatima del Socorro, Juan Méndez-Vergaray, Edith Gissela Rivera-Arellano, Mildred Jénica Ledesma-Cuadros, Yolanda Josefina Huayta-Franco, and Edward Flores. 2022. “Virtual Education During COVID-19 in Higher Education: A Systematic Review”. Tuning Journal for Higher Education 9 (2), 189-215.