Geohistorical, didactic, and linguistic competencies learning through a bilingual (Spanish/English) fieldtrip project with teachers in training
This research is predicated on the hypothesis that a fieldtrip project adhering to a CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) philosophy can be effective in promoting learning of both social and linguistic competencies. The main objective was to evaluate the didactic efficacy of a bilingual urban itinerary with teachers in training (from bilingual and non-bilingual groups) to develop geohistorical, didactic and linguistic competencies. Procedural and consolidated learning was assessed, via a dossier of activities and a statistically validated pretest-posttest. High development values were obtained in procedural tasks (average = 8.8/10), as well as a high increase in consolidated acquisition (average = +24.5% students). The greatest growth was observed in language skills (+ 26.4%). The assessed knowledge after the itinerary was significantly higher than before, for all competencies. However, there was no statistically significant difference between students belonging to bilingual or monolingual groups. Students positively valued these results. It is concluded that a local didactic fieldtrip is an effective CLIL strategy to develop social and linguistic competencies, and yet it is rarely discussed in the scientific literature and curricula.
Received: 3 March 2021
Accepted: 5 October 2021
Abello-Contesse, Christian. “Bilingual and multilingual education: An overview of the field.” In Bilingual and multilingual education in the 21st century: Building on experience, edited by Christian Abello-Contesse et al., 3-23. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2013.
Aguilera, David. “Field trip as a didactic resource to teach sciences. A systematic review,” Revista Eureka sobre Enseñanza y Divulgación de las Ciencias 15, no. 3 (2018): 3103-19. https://doi.org/10.25267/Rev_Eureka_ensen_divulg_cienc.2018.v15.i3.3103.
Benejam, Pilar. “The aims of fieldtrips,” Iber: Didáctica de las ciencias sociales, geografía e historia 36 (2003): 7-12. http://hdl.handle.net/11162/88171.
Bergan, Sjur. “The European Higher Education Area: A road to the future or at way’s end?” Tuning Journal for Higher Education 6, no. 2 (2019): 23-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-6(2)-2019pp23-49.
Biedermann, Anne. “Linguistic mediation in a foreign language teaching context,” Synergies Chili 10 (2014): 83-91. https://gerflint.fr/Base/Chili10/biedermann.pdf
Brox, Ali. “Notes from the Field: Course Design and Instruction Strategies in Environmental Studies classes for Bilingual Student,” Issues in Language Instruction at the Applied English Center 4, no. 1 (2015): 9-11. https://doi.org/10.17161/ili.v4i1.7005.
Cenoz, Jasone, Fred Genesee, and Durk Gorter. “Critical analysis of CLIL: Taking stock and looking forward,” Applied Linguistics 35, no. 3 (2014): 243-262. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt011.
Chabot, Samuel, Jaimie Drozdal, Yalun Zhou, Hui Su, and Jonas Braasch. “Language learning in a cognitive and immersive environment using contextualized panoramic imagery.” In HCI International 2019 - Posters. HCII 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1034, edited by Constantine Stephanidis, 202- 9. Cham: Springer, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23525-3_26.
Chang, Benjamin, Lee Sheldon, Mei Si, and Anton Hand. 2012. “Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments.” Paper presented at the Proceedings of SPIE - the International Society for Optical Engineering 8289, Burlingame (California), 8 February 2012. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.909835.
Cook, Thomas D., Donald T. Campbell, and Laura Peracchio. “Quasi experimentation.” In Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, edited by Marvin D. Dunnette and Leaetta M. Hough, 491-576. Sunnyvale: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1990.
Costillo, Emilio, Ana Belén Borrachero, María Rocío Esteban, and Jesús Sánchez- Martín. “Contributions of the nature field trips as teaching and learning activities in the opinion of the prospective teachers,” Indagatio didáctica 6, no. 3 (2014): 10-22. https://doi.org/10.34624/id.v6i3.3983
Council for Learning Outside the Classroom. Learning Outside the Classroom. Manifesto. Nottingham: DfES Publications, 2006. https://www.lotc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/G1.-LOtC-Manifesto.pdf.
Coyle, Do. “Content and Language Integrated Learning: Towards a Connected Research Agenda for CLIL Pedagogies,” The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10, no. 5 (2007): 543-62. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb459.0.
Crespo, José Manuel., María Luisa Gómez, and Luis Alfonso Cruz. “An approach to the National Parks landscapes and educational itineraries,” Espacio, Tiempo y Forma 11 (2018): 121-40. https://doi.org/10.5944/etfvi.11.2018.22359.
Cristóbal-Aragón, Esther and Ileana M. Greca. “Science teaching in a bilingual context: proposal for teaching an Astronomy content,” Revista de Enseñanza de la Física, 30, no. 2 (2018): 31-47. https://revistas.unc.edu.ar/index.php/revistaEF/article/view/22734/22344.
Dale, Liz and Rosie Tanner. CLIL Activities: A resource for subject and language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Dale, Ryan G., Robert B. Powell, Marc J. Stern, and Barry A. Garst. “Influence of the natural setting on environmental education outcomes,” Environmental Education Research 26, no. 5 (2020): 613-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2020.1738346.
De Diego-Lázaro, Beatriz, Kevin Winn, and María Adelaida Restrepo. “Cultural competence and self-efficacy after study abroad experiences,” American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 29, no. 4 (2020): 1896-909. https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJSLP-19-00101.
Del Pozo Beamud, María. “Affective variables and bilingual education: a quantitative study,” ENSAYOS, Revista de la Facultad de Educación de Albacete 35, no. 2 (2020): 151-69. https://doi.org/10.18239/ensayos.v35i2.2471.
DeWitt, Jennifer and Martin Storksdieck. “A short review of school field trips: Key findings from the past and implications for the future,” Visitor Studies 11, no. 2 (2008): 181-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/10645570802355562.
Doiz, Aintzane, David Lasagabaster, and Juan Manuel Sierra. “CLIL and motivation: The effect of individual and contextual variables,” The Language Learning Journal 42, no. 2 (2014): 209-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2014.889508.
Domínguez Almansa, Andrés and Ramón Vicente López Facal. “Heritage, landscape and education: initial teacher education and civic education of pupils in primary,” CLIO. History and History teaching 40 (2014): 1-26. http://hdl.handle.net/10347/20248.
Donert, Karl. Aspects of the State of Geography in European higher education. TUNING Geography: a report of findings and outcomes. Liverpool: Herodot Network, 2007. http://tuningacademy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/HERODOT_Tuning-Geography.pdf.
Eshach, Haim. “Bridging In-school and Out-of-school Learning: Formal, Non- Formal, and Informal Education,” Journal of Science Education and Technology 16, no. 2 (2007): 171-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-006-9027-1.
Espinoza, Eudaldo Enrique. “Variables and their operationalization in educational research. Part I,” Conrado. Revista Pedagógica de la Universidad de Cienfuegos 14, no. 65 (2018): 36-46. https://conrado.ucf.edu.cu/index.php/conrado/article/view/814.
Farmer, James, Doug Knapp, and Gregory M. Benton. “An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development,” The Journal of Environmental Education 38, no. 3 (2007): 33-42. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.38.3.33-42.
Fazzi, Fabiana and Dvaid Lasagabaster. “Learning beyond the classroom: Students’ attitudes towards the integration of CLIL and museum-based pedagogies,” Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 15, no. 2 (2021): 156-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2020.1714630.
Fombona, Javier and María Ángeles Pascual. Adult education, approach based on the analysis of European good practices. Revista Complutense de Educación 30, no. 2 (2019): 647-65. https://doi.org/10.5209/RCED.58882.
Freire, Paulo. Political nature of Education: culture, power and liberation [La naturaleza política de la Educación: Cultura, Poder y Liberación]. Barcelona: Paidos-MEC, 1990.
Ghazali, Nurhayati, Nur Ehsan Mohd Said, and Tan Kim, Hua. “Understanding second language anxiety: Feedback from ESL learners in TVET,” Universal Journal of Educational Research 8, no. 5 (2020): 2057-63. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.080543.
Gómez Carrasco, Cosme Jesús and Pedro Miralles Martínez. “Thinking historically or memorizing the past? assessing historical content in compulsory education in Spain,” Revista De Estudios Sociales 52 (2015): 52-68. https://doi.org/10.7440/res52.2015.04.
Granero-Gallegos, Antonio and Antonio Baena-Extremera. Physical activities in natural areas: Theory and practice for Physical Education [Actividades físicas en el medio natural: Teoría y práctica para la Educación Física]. Sevilla: Wanceulen, 2010.
Grant, Sean. “Effects of intensive EFL immersion programmes on willingness to communicate,” Language Learning Journal 48, no. 4 (2020): 442-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2017.1422274.
Halász, Gábor and Alain Michel. “Key Competences in Europe: interpretation, policy formulation and implementation,” European Journal of Education, Research, Development and Policy 46, no. 3 (2011): 289-306. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2011.01491.x.
Halloran, John, Eva Hornecker, Geraldine Fitzpatrick, Mark Weal, David Millard, Danius Michaelides, Don Cruickshank, and David De Roure. 2006. “The literacy fieldtrip: Using UbiComp to support children’s creative writing. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the 2006 Conference on Interaction Design and Children, Tampere (Finland), June 2006, 17-24. https://doi.org/10.1145/1139073.1139083.
Jadallah, Edward. “Constructivist Learning Experiences for Social Studies Education,” The Social Studies 91, no. 5 (2000): 221-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00377990009602469.
Kallioinen, Outi. “Defining and Comparing Generic Competences in Higher Education,” European Educational Research Journal 9, no. 1 (2010): 56-68. https://doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2010.9.1.56.
Karkdijk, Jan, Joop Van Der Schee, and Wilfried Admiraal. “Effects of teaching with mysteries on students geographical thinking skills,” International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education 22, no. 3 (2013): 183-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/10382046.2013.817664.
Kervinen, Anttoni, Anna Uitto, and Kalle Juuti. “How fieldwork-oriented biology teachers establish formal outdoor education practices,” Journal of Biological Education 54, no. 2 (2020): 115-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2018.1546762.
Krakowka, Amy Richmond. “Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses,” Journal of Geography 111, no. 6 (2012): 236-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221341.2012.707674.
Lambrinos, Nikos, and Fani Asiklari. “The introduction of GIS and GPS through local history teaching in primary school,” European Journal of Geography 5, no. 1 (2014): 32-47. http://www.eurogeographyjournal.eu/articles/2.THE%20INTRODUCTION%20OF%20GIS%20AND%20GPS%20THROUGH%20LOCAL%20HISTORY%20TEACHING%20IN%20PRIMARY%20SCHOOL-2.pdf.
Lavega, Pere, Unai Sáez, Gerard Lasierra, and Cristofol Salas. “Intradisciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in the acquisition of competencies: a study of a cooperative learning experience,” Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado 16, no. 1 (2013): 133-45. https://doi.org/10.6018/reifop.16.1.179491.
López Facal, Ramón Vicente. “Competencies and social sciences teaching [Competencias y enseñanza de las ciencias sociales],” Íber: Didáctica de las ciencias sociales, geografía e historia 74 (2013): 5-8. https://www.grao.com/es/producto/competencias-y-ensenanza-de-las-ciencias-sociales.
López Salmerón, Emilio José. “The creation of a city: urbanistic evolution of Cartagena [La creación de una ciudad: evolución urbanística de Cartagena].” PhD Dissertation, University of Alicante (Spain), 2017. http://hdl.andle.net/10045/75357.
López-Pastor, Víctor Manuel, Miriam Molina, Cristina Pascual, and Juan Carlos Manrique. “The importance of using Formative and Shared Assessment in Physical Education Teacher Education: Tutored Learning Projects as an example of good practice,” Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación 37 (2020): 620-27. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.74193.
López-Pastor, Víctor Manuel. “The rol of formative assessment in competency assessment: contributions from the formative and shared assessment in higher education network,” Revista de Docencia Universitaria 9, no. 1 (2011): 159-73. https://doi.org/10.4995/redu.2011.6185.
Lumino, Rosaria and Paolo Landri. “Network time for the European Higher Education Area,” Philosophy and Theory 52, no. 6 (2020): 653-663. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2019.1708328.
Maller, Cecily Jane. “Promoting children’s mental, emotional and social health through contact with nature: a model,” Health Education 109, no. 6 (2009): 522- 43. https://doi.org/10.1108/09654280911001185.
Martínez-Hernández, Carlos and Claudia Yubero. “Explaining Urban Sustainability to Teachers in Training through a Geographical Analysis of Tourism Gentrification in Europe,” Sustainability 12, no. 1 (2020): 67. http://doi.org/10.3390/su12010067.
Marvell, Alan and David Simm. (2018). “Emotional geographies experienced during international fieldwork: An evaluation of teaching and learning strategies for reflective assessment,” Journal of Geography in Higher Education 42, no. 4 (2018): 515-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2018.1460806.
Mir, Montserrat. “Teaching and learning about Spanish L2 compliments in short-term study abroad,” Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education 5, no. 2 (2020): 230-57. https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.18004.mir.
Mogensen, Finn and Karsten Schnack. “The action competence approach and the ‘new’ discourses of education for sustainable development, competence and quality criteria,” Environmental Education Research 16, no. 1 (2010): 59-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620903504032.
Montero Pozo, Jonathan and Óscar Jerez García. “The Teaching Itinerary as a Resource for Development of Communication Competences: Design of a Bilingual App,” in La competencia lingüística en la comunicación: visiones multidisciplinares y transversalidad, edited by José Vicente Salido López and Pedro Vicente Salido López, 199-207. Cuenca: Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 2019. http://doi.org/10.18239/jor_19.2019.02.
Nair, Subadrah Madhawa and Moganasundari Narayanasamy. “The effects of utilising the concept maps in teaching history,” International Journal of Instruction 10, no. 3 (2017): 109-26. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2017.1038a.
Nashaat-Sobhy, Nashwa and Ana Llinares. “CLIL students’ definitions of historical terms,” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, in press (2020). https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1798868.
Pagès, Joan. “Teaching and learning social sciences in 21st Century [Enseñar y aprender ciencias sociales en el siglo XXI: reflexiones casi al final de una década].” In Investigación en Educación, Pedagogía y Formación Docente: La investigación al servicio de una educación incluyente y de calidad en un mundo diverso y globalizado, edited by several authors, 139-154. Antioquía: Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, Universidad de Antioquía, Corporación Interuniversitaria de Servicios, 2009. http://www.didactica-ciencias-sociales.org/articulos_archivos/2009-pages-e-a-ccssXXI.pdf.
Papadopoulos, Isaak and Eleni Griva. “Learning in the Traces of Greek Culture”: A CLIL Project for Raising Cultural Awareness and Developing L2 Skills,” International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research 8, no. 1 (2014): 76-92. http://www.ijlter.org/index.php/ijlter/article/view/168.
Pappamihiel, N. Eleni and Jennifer Hatch Knight. “Using digital storytelling as a language experience approach activity: Integrating English language learners into a museum field trip,” Childhood Education 92, no. 4 (2016): 276-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2016.1208005.
Peasland, Emma, Dominic Henri, Lesley Morrell, and Graham Scott. “The influence of fieldwork design on student perceptions of skills development during field courses,” International Journal of Science Education 41, no. 17 (2019): 2369- 88. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2019.1679906.
Pedrinaci, Emilio. “Fieldwork and sciences learning [Trabajo de campo y aprendizaje de las ciencias],” Alambique: Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales 71 (2012): 81-9. https://www.grao.com/es/producto/trabajo-de-campo-y-aprendizaje-de-las-ciencias.
Pinto, Helena and Jaqueline Zarbato. “Constructing a significant learning through local heritage: Practicing heritage education in Portugal and Brazil,” Estudios Pedagógicos 43, no. 4 (2017): 203-27. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07052017000400011.
Rebar, Bryan and Larry Enochs. “Integrating Environmental Education Field Trip Pedagogy into Science Teacher Preparation.” In The Inclusion of Environmental Education in Science Teacher Education, edited by Alec Bodzin, Beth Shiner Klein, and Starlin Weaver, 111-26. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9222-9_8.
Redecker, Christine and Yves Punie. “The future of learning 2025: developing a vision for change,” Future Learning 1 (2013): 3-17. http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC85225.
Rodríguez, Juan Antonio and Pablo Joel Santana. “The distance between teachers’ and students’ work in EHEA: A dangerous gap?”, Profesorado. Revista de Currículum y Formación de Profesorado 19, no. 3 (2015): 380-404. https://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/profesorado/article/view/43665/25574.
Rumlich, Dominik. “Bilingual education in monolingual contexts: a comparative perspective,” The Language Learning Journal 48, no. 1 (2020): 115-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1696879.
Schott, Christian. “Virtual fieldtrips and climate change education for tourism students,” Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education 21 (2017): 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2017.05.002.
Sofield, Trevor H.B. and Lawal Mohammed Marafa. “Revitalizing fieldtrips in tourism: Visual anthropology, photo elicitation, rapid appraisal, participant observation and Habermas,” Tourism Management 75 (2019): 522-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.04.007.
Sousa Fernandes, Silvia Aparecida, Diego García Monteagudo and Xosé Manuel Souto González. “Educación geográfica y las salidas de campo como estrategia didáctica: un estudio comparativo desde el Geoforo Iberoamericano,” Biblio3W, Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales 21, no. 1155 (2016): 1-22. http://www.ub.edu/geocrit/b3w-1155.pdf.
Souza, Daniele T.P., Eugenia A. Kuhn, Arjen E.J. Wals, and Pedro R. Jacobi. “Learning in, with, and through the territory: Territory-based learning as a catalyst for urban sustainability,” Sustainability 12, no. 7 (2020): 3000. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12073000.
Stern, Marc, Robert Powell and Nicole Ardoin. “What Difference Does It Make? Assessing Outcomes from Participation in a Residential Environmental Education Program,” The Journal of Environmental Education 39, no. 4 (2008): 31-43. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEE.39.4.31-43.
Tejada, José. “The alternation of contexts aimed to the acquisition of competencies in complementary settings of higher education: concepts and strategy,” Educación XX1 15, no. 2 (2012): 17-40. https://doi.org/10.5944/educxx220.127.116.11.
Tigert, Johanna M. and Sheila Kirschbaum. “How Museum Teachers Scaffold Emergent Bilingual Learners’ Meaning-making During Field Trips,” Journal of Museum Education 44, no. 4 (2019): 439-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10598650.2019.1673114.
Tucker, Faith and John Horton. “‘The show must go on!’ Fieldwork, mental health and wellbeing in Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences,” Area 51, no. 1 (2019): 84-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/area.12437.
Uttal, David H., Nathaniel G. Meadow, Elizabeth T. Tipton, Linda L. Hand, Alison R. Alden, and Christopher Warren (2013), “The Malleability of Spatial Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Training Studies”, Psychological Bulletin 139, no. 2 (2013): 352-402. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028446.
VanSledright, Bruce A. The challenge of rethinking history education: On practices, theories, and policy. New York and London: Routledge, 2011. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203844847.
Wiseheart, Melody, Mythili Viswanathan and Ellen Bialystok. “Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 19, no. 1 (2015): 141-6. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000273.
Wolff, Dieter. “Integrating language and content in the language classroom: Are transfer of knowledge and of language ensured?,” ASp 41/42 (2003): 35-46. https://doi.org/10.4000/asp.1154
Zhang, Jijia, Yutong Lu, Qirui Zhang, and Jinquiao Zhang. “The effects of foreign language anxiety, nervousness and cognitive load on foreign language lying: Evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals,” Acta Psychologica Sinica 52, no.7 (2020): 861-73. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00861.
Authors are required to sign and submit a copyright transfer agreement after acceptance but before publication of their manuscript. To that effect, they receive, from the Managing Editor of Tuning Journal for Higher Education, a standard copyright assignment form designed along the following lines:
The author who signs the copyright transfer agreement must be the sole creator of the work or legally acting on behalf of and with the full agreement of all the contributing authors.
2. Copyright and Code of conduct:
a) Authors warrant that their work is original; has not been previously copyrighted or published in any form; is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; its submission and publication do not violate TJHE Ethical Guidelines for Publication and any codes (of conduct), privacy and confidentiality agreements, laws or any rights of any third party; and no publication payment by the Publisher (University of Deusto) is required.
b) Authors are solely liable for the consequences that may arise from third parties’ complaints about the submitted manuscript and its publication in Tuning Journal for Higher Education (TJHE).
c) Authors grant to the Publisher the worldwide, sub-licensable, and royalty-free right to exploit the work in all forms and media of expression, now known or developed in the future, for educational and scholarly purposes.
d) Authors retain the right to archive, present, display, distribute, develop, and republish their work (publisher's version) to progress their scientific career provided the original publication source (Tuning Journal) is acknowledged properly and in a way that does not suggest the Publisher endorses them or their use of the wortk.
e) Authors warrant that no permissions or licences of any kind will be granted that might infringe the rights granted to the Publisher.
Tuning Journal for Higher Education is an Open Access publication. Its content is free for full and immediate access, reading, search, download, distribution and reuse in any medium or format only for non-commercial purposes and in compliance with any applicable copyright legislation, without prior permission from the Publisher or the author(s). In any case, proper acknowledgement of the original publication source must be made and any changes to the original work must be indicated clearly and in a manner that does not suggest the author’s and or Publisher’s endorsement whatsoever. Any other use of its content in any medium or format, now known or developed in the future, requires prior written permission of the copyright holder.