Incorporating the Tuning Approach in Higher Education curricular reforms and course design in Tanzania for enhancing graduates’ competencies: stakeholders’ views

  • Johnson Muchunguzi Ishengoma University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Keywords: tuning approach, graduate’ unemployment, graduates’unemployability, market-driven degree courses, graduate competencies


Available documentary and researchevidencesreveal that the majority of Tanzania universities’ graduates (public and private universities) lack competencies or technical skills (employability skills) required for the job market and by potential employers, despite massive curricular reforms implemented in the public higher education sector since the early 1990s. Lack of employability skills which consequently leads to graduate unemployment or un-employability is attributable to the fact that curricular reforms and design in Tanzania public universities undertaken by lecturers and professors do not incorporate basic Tuning principles of competence-based teaching and learning which puts emphasis on competencies and skills by identifying generic and specific competencies during course design or curriculum reform. This study using the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM)’s School of Education sought to: (1) explore faculty and students’ views on the application of the Tuning approach in curricular reforms and degree/course design as a mitigation of university graduates’ unemployment and un-employability, (2) solicit stakeholders’(academic staff and students) perceptions of Tuning approach and its relevance in higher education curriculum reforms and design to make higher education more competence-based, and (3) find out students perceived causes of graduate unemployment and un-employability and whether the application of Tuning approach in curriculum reforms and design in universities can be a solution to graduate unemployment. Findings from the study reveal that both faculty and students concur that application of Tuning approach in higher education reforms and curricular design could enhance graduates competences and skills and reduce graduate unemployment.

Published online: 30 November 2017


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Author Biography

Johnson Muchunguzi Ishengoma, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Senior Lecturer and Head of the Department of Educational Foundations, Management & Lifelong Learning in the School of Education at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. He holds a PhD in Higher Education Financing and Comparative and Global Studies in Education from the State University of New York at Buffalo (USA). Mail:


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How to Cite
Ishengoma, Johnson Muchunguzi. 2017. “Incorporating the Tuning Approach in Higher Education Curricular Reforms and Course Design in Tanzania for Enhancing graduates’ Competencies: Stakeholders’ Views”. Tuning Journal for Higher Education 5 (1), 121-69.