Impact of competence-based training on employability of Technical and Vocational graduates in Ethiopia

  • Birhane Sime Geressu Arsi University, Ethiopia
Keywords: impact, competences, employability, employment, graduates, training, TVET


The purpose of this study is to critically examine the impact of competence based training on employability of technical and vocational college graduates in Ethiopia. Mixed methods of research design, predominantly concurrent nested strategy were employed to conduct the study. The study involved 162 instructors, 123 Level III automotive technology trainees, 87 department heads and 89 graduates, a total of 461 respondents as a sample. Moreover, 24 respondents (6 industry owners, 6 TVET college deans, 6 competence-based process owners and 6 industry trainers’ leaders) were purposely selected for interview and focus group discussion. Under the study, the researcher used employability of graduates as dependent variable andcompetency basedtraining as independent variable. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. The study result showed that technical and vocational education and training (TVET) colleges in Ethiopia have been performing below expectations in developing demand-based curriculum and implementing competence-based training in TVET colleges and industries. As a result, among the graduates nearly 50 percent are not employed in the past two years. Hence, it is recommended that constantly consulting and involving relevant stakeholders in setting study profile, identifying intended learning outcomes and strengtheningcompetence basedlearning style are vital for graduates to demonstrate employability skill, knowledge and attitude into the job that consequentially lead to graduate employment.

Published online: 30 November 2017


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Birhane Sime Geressu, Arsi University, Ethiopia

PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Management, College of Education and Behavioural Sciences, Arsi University, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. He served as a head of the department of Educational planning and management, Adama science and Technology University from March 2009 to December 2012. In the same University as of March 2012, he was posted to the position of Associate Dean for Research, Postgraduate studies, strategic planning and Administration of the school of Educational Sciences and Technology Teacher Education. As a result of launching Arsi University in December 2014, he has been working with a position of Dean of school of postgraduate studies. Besides, representing Ethiopia in general, Adama Science and Technology University, now shifted to Arsi University, in particular he has been selected as one member of the African Universities, and has been actively and phase II Tuning EU- Africa strategies seminars held in different African countries. Mail:


African Union. The proceedings of the conference of the African Ministers of Education on TVET in Africa. Meeting of the Bureau of the Conference of Ministers of Education of the African Union (2007), 29-31, Addis Ababa.

Biemans, Harm. “Vocation and Business Education and Training in Europe: Qualification and the World of Work,” Journal of Vocational Education and Training, no. 7 (2004), 17-22.

Colline, Michael. Competence in Adult Education: A New Perspective. London: University Press of Oxford, 1987.

Dyson, Jack. Skills, Knowledge and Employability. Geneva: International Labor Office. 2005.

Deibinger, Mannhiem. Structures and Functions of Competence- based Education and Training (CEBT): A Comparative Perspective. InWent, 2005.

Dicbois and Rithwell. Competence –based human resource management. Palo Alto, CA: Davis Black publishing, 2004.

Frere, Cathryn. Developing a Competency Based Curriculum. Virginia: West Virginia University (2010), 9-12.

Goncizi, Andrew. Re-conceptualizing competency based education and training. Sydney: University of Technology, 1996.

Herschbach, Zidrman. VET management in the United States . Geneva, 1995.

International Labour Organization. Implementing Competency-Based Training (CBT) in Bangladesh. Bangladesh, 2012.

Karka, Sandra. Competency based education and training. Myths and realities. England: Eric Publications, 1998.

Kathleen, Santopietro. Competency based education and content standards. Colorado: Northern Colorado Literacy Resource Centre, 2006.

Kudwadi and Suryadi. Development framework of evaluation model based on skill competency standard in high school technology and vocational education. Ban dung: JPIS FPTKUPI, 2011.

Ministry of Education. Guideline on curriculum development. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education, 2006.

_____. National TVET Strategy. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education, 2008.

_____. TVET Leaders’ and Trainers’ Qualifications Framework. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education, 2010.

_____. Cooperative training guideline. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education, 2010.

Oromia Education Bureau. Baseline Date in Regional TVET system. Addis Ababa, 2008.

Tuning Africa. Tuning and harmonization of higher education: The African Experience, Bilbao: University of Deusto, 2014.

United Nations, Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization. “Technical and vocational education and training for sustainable development: The challenges of implementation.” No. 10 (2005), 1-4.

Workington, Jackie. “Curriculum change in engineering.” European journal of engineering education, no. 27 (2002), 12-17.

How to Cite
Geressu, Birhane Sime. 2017. “Impact of Competence-Based Training on Employability of Technical and Vocational Graduates in Ethiopia”. Tuning Journal for Higher Education 5 (1), 101-19.