Competences and learning outcomes: a panacea for

understanding the (new) role of Higher Education?

Robert Wagenaar

About Author


   Robert Wagenaar ( is a historian and at present director of undergraduate and graduate studies at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He is also Joint Director of the Tuning Academy, located in Bilbao (Spain) and Groningen; and a member of the Editorial Board of Tuning Journal for Higher Education (TJHE). He is an external expert on Higher Education for the European Commission and has been involved in main initiatives to harmonise European Higher Education, such as the development of a European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) since 1988 and the Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area and a European Qualifications Framework for LLL. He also chairs the Dutch team of experts for the implementation of the ‘Bologna Process’ in Dutch Higher Education institutions. Together with Julia Gonzalez (University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain), Wagenaar elaborated, designed and coordinates the large-scale innovative project Tuning Educational Structures in the World.